QuickStats
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Timeline
  • Millenarian Movement: Since William Miller predicted the return of Jesus Christ in the mid-1800s, Millenarian movements emerged and anticipated the end of the world.
  • Rauschenbusch, Walter : Walter Rauschenbusch (1861-1918) was the main founding theologian of the Social Gospel.
  • Benjamin Randall Organizes the Free Will Baptists: Itinerant preacher Benjamin Randall organized the Free Will Baptists in New England in 1780.
  • Church of Satan: Anton Szandor LaVey (1930-97) started the Church of Satan in 1966, offering a new Golden Rule: "Do unto others as they do unto you."
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Measurements
[Viewing Matches 1-3]  (of 3 total matches in Measurement Concepts)
ARDA Dictionary
  • Heaven (Christianity):The dwelling place of God, angels and redeemed individuals in the afterlife. It functions as the ultimate reward for the redeemed, as opposed to hell, which is the punishment for the damned (Smith and Green 1995: 411). To find information on survey questions related to heaven, click here .
  • Rapture:The belief that Christians will be brought up to heaven and escape a time of tribulation and testing before the return of Christ (Smith and Green 1995: 877).
  • Predestination:The belief that every human being, before birth, was predestined by God to either heaven or hell. This is found in Calvinist theology, also known as Reformed theology (Prothero 2008: 207).
  • Purgatory:The place, state or condition of departed Christian souls in which they undergo purifying suffering before entering heaven. This belief is evident in Roman Catholicism (Reid et al. 1990: 964).
  • Dispensational Premillennialism:The belief held by some Christians that the current dispensation, or historical period, is near the end, and will conclude with the rapture of the believers into heaven. Jesus will come down from heaven to fight the Antichrist and establish a thousand-year reign of peace. British theologian John Nelson Darby (1800-1882) developed this theology and it spread to the United States after the Civil War. This type of theology was made popular by the Scofield Reference Bible and the fictional Left Behind book series. It is one of the most popular forms of prophecy belief in the United States (Prothero 2008: 217).
  • Salvation:The belief that humans require deliverance due to the problem of sin. For Christians, the death and resurrection of Jesus allows individuals to be forgiven of sin, and therefore saved. Salvation also is often associated with receiving admission into heaven (Smith and Green 1995: 954).
  • Dome of the Rock:A domed shrine in Jerusalem that houses the rock upon which the Prophet Muhammad ascended into the Seven Heavens during his night journey. It was constructed by the Caliph Abd al-Malik and was finished in 691 CE (Smith and Green 1995: 320).
  • Religious Compensator:A religious compensator promotes the belief in a future reward and/or justice. According to Iannaccone and Bainbridge (2009:466), "A distinctive feature of religious organizations is that they promise attainment of rewards, such as eternal life in Heaven, that cannot be delivered in the here and now" (2009:466).
  • Belief in Heaven, Measures of:One's views on the certainty of a positive afterlife existing, or occasionally, questions about who will be allowed to go there. Examples of these measures are found in the 2008 General Social Survey , 2005 Baylor Religion Survey and the 2005 National Study of Youth and Religion , all of which are available in the ARDA's Data Archive.
  • Lord's Prayer:The most popular prayer in Christianity, and widely recited by Christians today. It comes from a passage in the Gospel According to Matthew, where Jesus' disciples ask him how to pray. It begins (in the King James Bible): "Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name.. (Prothero 2008: 246-247).
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Teaching Tools
[Viewing Matches 1-2]  (of 2 total matches in Teaching Tools)
Citations
Citations are taken from the Sociology of Religion Searchable Bibliographic Database, created and updated by Anthony J. Blasi (Ph.D. in Sociology, University of Notre Dame; University of Texas at San Antonio). The ARDA is not responsible for content or typographical errors.
  • To heaven or to hell: Are Muslims' afterlife hope and fear balanced? A cross-cultural study.
    Al-Issa, Riyad Salim, Steven Eric Krauss, Samsilah Roslan, and Haslinda Abdullah (2020)
    Review of Religious Reseach 62:2: 351-368.
    Develops survey measures of Afterlife Hope Expectations and Afterlife Fear Expectations, based on responses of Jordanian and Malaysian university students.
    Associated Search Terms: Afterlife; Methods; Islam; Scale
  • Heaven's Gates and Hell's Flames: A Sociological Study of New Christian Movements in Contemporary Goa.
    Abreu, Savio (2020)
    New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    Reports 2007-08 field work in 2 Catholic charismatic prayer groups & 2 neo-pentecostal churches.
    Associated Search Terms: India, Goa; Participant observation; Pentecostal, Catholic, India; Pentecostal, neo, India
  • Heaven and health: How Black, Latino, and Korean Christians view the relationship between faith and health.
    Bolger, Daniel (2018)
    Review of Religious Research 60: 389-402.
    Considers congregations as access points for medical services. reports focus group & interview results. All congregations promoted initiatives for physical care. African Americans & Latinos highlighted faith, Korean Americans highlighted social support. African Americans evinced distrust of medicine.
    Associated Search Terms: Focus group; African Americans; Korean Americans; Latino Americans; Medical
  • "Let the heavens be glad, and the earth rejoice": Religion and life satisfaction among emerging adults in the United States.
    Desmond, Scott A., Rachel Kraus, and Brendan J.L. Dugan (2018)
    Mental Health, Religion and Culture 21(3): 304–318.
    Based on the 3rd wave of the National Study of Youth and Religion; private devotion & religious efficacy are significantly related to greater life satisfaction among emerging adults. Participation in organised religion, religious salience, otherworldly beliefs, number of religious friends, and being spiritual but not religious are not related to greater life satisfaction.
    Associated Search Terms: Life satisfaction; Young adults; Youth
  • Finding their way to heaven: Women, self-narratives and Catholicism in Quito, Ecuador.
    Calderón Muñoz, Maria (2016)
    Socal Compass 63;1: 20-37.
    Based on 2004-06 interviews with women in Catholic groups in Quito. Conversion experiences after a period of dissatisfaction with traditional Catholicism led to maintaining an individualized personal Catholicism, sometimes at odds with official Church teachings.
    Associated Search Terms: Women; Post-structuralism; Discourse; Ecuador, Quito; Identification; Conversion; Catholic, Ecuador
  • A match made in heaven? Religion-based marriage decisions, marital quality, and the moderating effects of spouse's religious commitment.
    Perry, Samuel L. (2015)
    Social Indicators Research 123:1: 203-225.
    Utilizes 2006 Portraits of American Life Study data. Religion’s influence on the marriage decision does not directly predict respondents’ relationship-satisfaction or their spouse’s loving or hurtful behaviors, while the importance of religion to one’s spouse is strongly associated with all these marital outcomes.
    Associated Search Terms: Marriage
  • From religious icon to "our Mother from heaven": The appropriation of the Virgin Mary by Catholic women in Quito.
    Calderón Muñoz, Maria (2014)
    Culture and Religion 15:1: 58-71.
    The Virgin is not regarded as an afflicted figure or victim, but instead as a brave & empowered woman. The image they have of the Virgin contrasts with the Church's views that emphasise her obedience & sexual purity. Thus the Virgin has become the property of these Catholic women & an icon of resistance of male-imposed Catholic rules.
    Associated Search Terms: Women; Marian; Catholic, Ecuador; Ecuador, Quito
  • "Why would our heavenly Father do that to anyone?" Oppressive othering through sexual classification schemes in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Sants.
    Sumerau, J. Edward, and Ryan T. Cragun (2014)
    Symbolic Interaction 37:3: 331-352.
    Associated Search Terms: Homosexuality; Social distance; Mormon
  • The Heavenly Touch Ministry in the age of Millennial Capitalism. A Phenomenological Perspective.
    Kim, Sung-Gun (2012)
    Nova Religio 15:3: 51-64.
    Sees the Heavenly Touch Ministry as a product of global capitalism.
    Associated Search Terms: Pentecostal, Korea; Prosperity Gospel, Korea; Korea (South); Heavenly Touch Ministry
  • Divergent effects of beliefs in heaven and hell on national crime rates.
    Shariff, Azim F., and Mijke Rhemtulla (2012)
    PLoS ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039048
    The proportion of people who believe in hell negatively predicts national crime rates whereas belief in heaven predicts higher crime rates. These effects remain after accounting for a host of covariates, & ultimately prove stronger predictors of national crime rates than economic variables such as GDP & income inequality.
    Associated Search Terms: Criminology; Afterlife
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Questions/Variables on Surveys
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