Site Features
  • ARDA Guiding Papers Series: Prominent scholars provide guidance on the study of religion, new research agendas, and/or commentaries on the current state of the study of religion.
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QuickStats
[Viewing Matches 1-2]  (of 2 total matches in QuickStats)
Timeline
  • Eddy, Mary Baker: Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910) founded the Christian Science movement.
  • Xavier University of Louisiana Founded: Xavier University of Louisiana (est. 1915) is the only historically black Catholic institution of higher learning in America.
  • Church of Scientology: In 1954, L. Ron Hubbard (1911-1986) began the Church of Scientology with teachings on how to reach a blissful "state of clear."
  • New Thought: Beginning in the mid-19th century, the New Thought movement extolled the power of the mind and God to influence everything from healing to personal success.
  • Hubbard, L. Ron: L. Ron Hubbard (1911-1986) founded Scientology, a controversial new religious movement.
  • Theosophical Society Founded: Founded in New York in 1875, the Theosophical Society popularized such Eastern tenets as karma and reincarnation in a new religious movement emphasizing spiritual evolution.
  • Biblical Theology Movement: Between the mid-1940s and early 1960s, the biblical theology movement emerged to counter both liberal and fundamentalist interpretations of the Bible.
  • Secular Movement: Gaining prominence in the mid-20th century, the modern secular movement pushed for a society without religion.
  • Scopes Trial: The Scopes Trial (1925) highlighted the tension between literal interpretations of creation accounts in the Bible and evolutionary theory in the 20th century.
  • Christian Modernism: Emerging in the late 19th century, Christian modernism sought to accommodate Christian faith to changes in modern society.
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-12]  (of 12 total matches in Timelines)
Measurements
[Viewing Matches 1-2]  (of 2 total matches in Measurement Concepts)
ARDA Dictionary
  • Christian Science Family:Churches following the teachings of founder Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910) , who believed that personal healing was the central message of Christianity. She believed that the correct interpretation of Scripture would alleviate disease, suffering, and even death according to her book Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (1875). The movement became more of an institution in 1879. Worship services include readings from the Bible as well as Eddy's "Science and Health." The largest group in the Christian Science family is the Church of Christ, Scientist (Smith and Green 1995: 264).
  • Eddy, Mary Baker (1821-1910):Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910) founded the Christian Science movement, a religious body that believes illness is an illusion. She helped establish a church of 100,000 members and founded the Christian Science Monitor , which still exists today. For more on Mary Baker Eddy, click here .
  • Attribution of Intentionality:Perhaps the most widely influential theory currently in the cognitive science approach to religion, it holds that faith in supernatural beings is a cognitive error that naturally springs from the way the human brain evolved.
  • Divinity:A term frequently used prior to the 20th century to refer to the study of theology or the "science of divine things." The term also could refer to the quality of being divine as well as to God himself (Reid et al. 1990: 359).
  • Biblical Inerrancy:The belief that the Bible is without error, in terms of theology, ethics, history, geography, and science. This is common in Christian fundamentalism, as opposed to evangelicals who typically have a less strict view that the Bible, and instead simply believe that the Bible is the inspired word of God (Prothero 2008: 235).
  • Scientology:A new religious movement, founded in 1953 by science fiction author L. Ron Hubbard . Scientologists believe that suffering is caused by ingrained records of past experiences ("engrams"). Scientologists aim to remove these "engrams" and become "Clears." Famous Scientologists include John Travolta and Tom Cruise (Prothero 2008: 276).
  • Scopes Trial:A 1925 court case in Dayton, Tennessee, in which science teacher John Scopes was accused of violating state law by teaching Darwinian evolution instead of a creationist account. The court found John Scopes guilty, but the ruling was overturned due to a small technicality (Prothero 2008: 214). For more information on the Scopes trial, click here .
  • Anomie:Often defined simplistically as “normlessness,” it also is used as a synonym for “demoralized” or “alienated,” and anomic society may be considered “disorganized.” The term has been popular in social science at least since Emile Durkheim's (1897) book on suicide. Anomie can be interpreted in terms of the values and norms of society, both of which may be established and supported by religion (Stark and Bainbridge 1996: 18-19).
  • Secularization:1) The process of a group or individual discarding religious beliefs and practices. 2) Sociologists also refer to a society being secularized when religion loses its public presence. 3) A theory about the eventual decline of religion due to modernity (i.e. science, economic development, pluralism, etc.), which is debated among social scientists (Reid et al. 1990: 1069-1070).
  • Superstition, Religion as:Superstition is defined as “any belief or attitude, based on fear or ignorance, that is inconsistent with the known laws of science or with what is generally considered in the particular society as true and rational” (Guralnik 1986:1430). Superstitions include walking under a ladder or avoiding the number 13. Some critics of religion view religion as just silly superstition (see Gorsuch 2002). If religion is just superstition, then the psychological processes and correlates of religiousness should be similar to measures of superstition. Instead, psychology research in general suggests that religion and superstition are two independent constructs. For example, Johnston and colleagues (1995) found separate factors for beliefs involving paranormal, superstition, extraordinary life forms and religion. Hynam (1970) found that superstition was positively correlated with a lack of clear social norms while religion was negatively related. While there may be elements of religion that inconsistent with the laws of science, like miracles, it is perhaps unwise to reduce religion to “just superstition” (Hood, Hill and Spilka 2009:25).
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-15]  (of 15 total matches in the ARDA Dictionary)
Religious Groups
[Viewing Matches 1-2]  (of 2 total matches in Religious Groups)
Religious Family Trees
  • Islam:Interactive Islam Family Tree
[Viewing Matches 1-1]  (of 1 total matches in Religion Family Trees)
Teaching Tools
[Viewing Matches 1-1]  (of 1 total matches in Teaching Tools)
Citations
Citations are taken from the Sociology of Religion Searchable Bibliographic Database, created and updated by Anthony J. Blasi (Ph.D. in Sociology, University of Notre Dame; University of Texas at San Antonio). The ARDA is not responsible for content or typographical errors.
  • It all depends on what you want to believe: How young adults navigate religion and science.
    Longest, Kyle C., and Jeremy E. Uecker (2021)
    Review of Religious Research 63:1: 1-21.
    Analyzes 214 interviews with young adults from Wave 3, National study of Youth and Religion (2007). Interviewees saw no particular conflict between religion & science. Responses were highly individualistic, showing the value of open-ended interviews.
    Associated Search Terms: Methodology; Methods, interview; Science; Young adults
  • Religion, family, and career among graduate students in the sciences.
    Scheitle, Christopher P., Brittany M. Kowalski, Erin B. Hudnall, and Ellory Dabbs (2021)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 60:1: 131-146.
    Analyzes web survey data from students in U.S.A. social & natural science graduate departments. Religiously positively predicts familism, which in turn predicts teaching- rather than research-orientations.
    Associated Search Terms: Scientist; Students, graduate; Religiosity; Education
  • Political identity and confidence in science and religion in the United States.
    O'Brien, Timothy L., and Shiri Noy (2020)
    Sociology of Religion 81:4: 439-461.
    Analyzes 1973-2018 General Social Survey data (U.S.A.); Democrats & Republicans reversed their confidence in science & in religion over time, Democrats now confident in science & Republicans in religion. Political identities predict confidence in religion & science.
    Associated Search Terms: Science; Politics, U.S.A.; Identity
  • Crusading for moral authority: Christian nationalism and opposition to science.
    Baker, Joseph O., Samuel L. Perry, and Adnrew L. Whitehead (2020)
    Sociological Forum https://doi.org/10.1111/socf.12619
    Christian nationalism—meaning the desire to see particularistic & exclusivist versions of Christian symbols, values, & policies enshrined as the established religion of the U.S.A.—is a strong & consistent predictor of Americans’ skeptical attitudes about science above & beyond other religious & political characteristics.
    Associated Search Terms: Christian nationalism; Science
  • Indian scientists' definitions of religion and spirituality.
    Khalsa, Simranjit; Brenton D. Kalinowski, and Elaine Howard Ecklund (2020)
    Religions 11:7:355.
    Based on 80 interviews with Indian scientists. How they defined religion & spirituality in their national context is important in their understanding of the relationship between religion & science.
    Associated Search Terms: Spirituality; Science; Scientist; India; Definition of religion
  • Seeing is achieving: Religion, embodiment, and explanations of racial inequality in STEM.
    Bolger, Daniel, and Elaine Howard Ecklund (2020)
    Ethnic and Racial Studies DOI: 10.1080/01419870.2020.1791354.
    Based on focus groups of pastors & interviews with congregations. Blacks & Latinos both rely on both structural & individualistic explanations of inequality in science, technology, engineering, & mathematics. Individualistic explanations were seen as products of structural constraints.
    Associated Search Terms: Race; Science; Stratification
  • How culture wars delay herd immunity: Christian nationalism and anti-vaccine attitudes.
    Whitehead, Andrew L., and Samuel L. Perry (2020)
    Socius 6. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2378023120977727
    U.S.A. survey data show a pervasive ideology that rejects science & promotes allegiance to conservative politicians (i.e., Christian nationalism) strongly predicts anti-vaccine attitudes.
    Associated Search Terms: Christian Identity; Conservative, U.S.A.; Science; Medical; Politics, U.S.A.
  • Culture wars and COVID-19 conduct: Christian nationalism, religiosity, and Americans' behavior during the coronavirus pandemic.
    Perry, Samuel L., Andrew L. Whitehead, and Joshua B. Grubbs (2020)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 59:3: 405-416.
    Analyzes August 2019, February 2020, & May 2020, Public and Discourse Ethics Survey panel data (U.S.A.); Christian nationalism was the leading predictor of Americans engaging in incautious behavior & was the 2nd strongest predictor of taking fewer precautions such as wearing a mask or sanitizing hands. Religiosity, in contrast, was the leading predictor of taking more frequent precautionary actions.
    Associated Search Terms: Religiosity; Science; Health; Christian nationalism
  • "Doing gender" and "doing religion" in science: A cross-national examination.
    Thomson, Robert A., Jr., Sharan Kaur Mehta, and Elaine Howard Ecklund (2020)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 59:2: 269-288.
    Analyzes an international sample of biologists & physicists; a religious gender gap (men less religious, women more) in India & Italy but not in the U.S.A. and U.K.
    Associated Search Terms: Scientist; Gender
  • Agents of God: Boundaries and Authority in Muslim and Christian Schools.
    Guhin, Jeffrey (2020)
    New York: Oxford University Press.
    2 Evangelical & 2 Sunni Muslim schools use boundaries of politics, gender, & sexuality to distinguish themselves from the secular world. The book's 1st half highlights boundaries that show the students who they are not; the 2nd half shows how the schools use science, scripture, & prayer to teach them who they are. Issues are sexuality & evolution.
    Associated Search Terms: Evangelical, U.S.A.; Evolution; Education; United States, New York, New York; Sexuality; Islam, U.S.A.
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-150]  (of 1496 total matches in Citations)
Data Archive
  • General Social Survey, 2016:
    The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This data file has all cases and variables asked on the 2016 GSS.

    To download syntax files for the GSS that reproduce well-known religious group recodes, including RELTRAD, please visit the ARDA's Syntax Repository .
    Funded By: National Science Foundation
    Collected: 2016, Uploaded 9/25/2017
  • General Social Survey, 2018:
    The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This data file has all cases and variables asked on the 2018 GSS.

    To download syntax files for the GSS that reproduce well-known religious group recodes, including RELTRAD, please visit the ARDA's Syntax Repository .
    Funded By: National Science Foundation
    Collected: 2018, Uploaded 9/20/2019
  • General Social Survey 2014 Cross-Section and Panel Combined:
    The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This data file has all cases and variables asked on the 2014 GSS. There are a total of 3,842 cases in the data set but their initial sampling years vary because the GSS now contains panel cases. Sampling years can be identified with the variable SAMPTYPE.

    To download syntax files for the GSS that reproduce well-known religious group recodes, including RELTRAD, please visit the ARDA's Syntax Repository .
    Funded By: National Science Foundation
    Collected: 2014, Uploaded 8/10/2015
  • International Social Survey Programme 2008: Religion III:
    Started in 1984, the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) is an ongoing program of cross-national collaboration. The program develops modules that deal with areas of interest in the social sciences. These modules supplement regular national surveys. The 2008 religion module includes data from Australia, Austria, Belgium - Flanders, Chile, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Northern Ireland, Norway, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, South Africa, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, the United States of America, and Venezuela. Similar to the 1991 and 1998 ISSP religion modules, this data set includes numerous measures of religious affiliation, beliefs, and participation. It also contains measures of several social and political attitudes. Finally, the data set contains basic demographic information such as age, sex, education, and occupation. For more information, visit the ISSP 2008 website .
    Funded By: The research organization in each country funds all of its own costs and the merging of the data into a cross-national data set is performed by the Zentralarchiv fuer Empirische Sozialforschung, University of Cologne.
    Collected: 2008, Uploaded 9/7/2012
  • General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined:
    The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This data file has all cases and variables asked on the 2012 GSS. There are a total of 4,820 cases in the data set but their initial sampling years vary because the GSS now contains panel cases. Sampling years can be identified with the variable SAMPTYPE.

    The 2012 GSS featured special modules on religious scriptures, the environment, dance and theater performances, health care system, government involvement, health concerns, emotional health, financial independence and income inequality.

    The GSS has switched from a repeating, cross-section design to a combined repeating cross-section and panel-component design. This file has a rolling panel design, with the 2008 GSS as the base year for the first panel. A sub-sample of 2,000 GSS cases from 2008 was selected for reinterview in 2010 and again in 2012 as part of the GSSs in those years. The 2010 GSS consisted of a new cross-section plus the reinterviews from 2008. The 2012 GSS consists of a new cross-section of 1,974, the first reinterview wave of the 2010 panel cases with 1,551 completed cases, and the second and final reinterview of the 2008 panel with 1,295 completed cases. Altogether, the 2012 GSS had 4,820 cases (1,974 in the new 2012 panel, 1,551 in the 2010 panel, and 1,295 in the 2008 panel).

    To download syntax files for the GSS that reproduce well-known religious group recodes, including RELTRAD, please visit the ARDA's Syntax Repository .
    Funded By: National Science Foundation
    Collected: 2012, Uploaded 10/16/2013
  • National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, Public Use Contextual Database, Wave I:
    The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) is a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in the United States during the 1994-95 school year. The Add Health cohort has been followed into young adulthood with four in-home interviews, the most recent in 2008, when the sample was aged 24-32*. Add Health combines longitudinal survey data on respondents' social, economic, psychological and physical well-being with contextual data on the family, neighborhood, community, school, friendships, peer groups, and romantic relationships, providing unique opportunities to study how social environments and behaviors in adolescence are linked to health and achievement outcomes in young adulthood. The fourth wave of interviews expanded the collection of biological data in Add Health to understand the social, behavioral, and biological linkages in health trajectories as the Add Health cohort ages through adulthood. The fifth wave of data collection is planned to begin in 2016.

    Initiated in 1994 and supported by three program project grants from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) with co-funding from 23 other federal agencies and foundations, Add Health is the largest, most comprehensive longitudinal survey of adolescents ever undertaken. Beginning with an in-school questionnaire administered to a nationally representative sample of students in grades 7-12, the study followed up with a series of in-home interviews conducted in 1995, 1996, 2001-02, and 2008. Other sources of data include questionnaires for parents, siblings, fellow students, and school administrators and interviews with romantic partners. Preexisting databases provide information about neighborhoods and communities.

    Add Health was developed in response to a mandate from the U.S. Congress to fund a study of adolescent health, and Waves I and II focus on the forces that may influence adolescents' health and risk behaviors, including personal traits, families, friendships, romantic relationships, peer groups, schools, neighborhoods, and communities. As participants have aged into adulthood, however, the scientific goals of the study have expanded and evolved. Wave III, conducted when respondents were between 18 and 26** years old, focuses on how adolescent experiences and behaviors are related to decisions, behavior, and health outcomes in the transition to adulthood. At Wave IV, respondents were ages 24-32* and assuming adult roles and responsibilities. Follow up at Wave IV has enabled researchers to study developmental and health trajectories across the life course of adolescence into adulthood using an integrative approach that combines the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences in its research objectives, design, data collection, and analysis.

    * 52 respondents were 33-34 years old at the time of the Wave IV interview.
    ** 24 respondents were 27-28 years old at the time of the Wave III interview.

    To provide an array of community characteristics by which researchers may investigate the nature of such contextual influences for a wide range of adolescent health behaviors, selected contextual variables have been calculated and compiled. These are provided in this Contextual Database, already linked to the Add Health respondent IDs.
    Funded By: Department of Health and Human Services , National Institutes of Health , Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development , with cooperative funding from 23 other federal agencies and foundations.
    Collected: 1995, Uploaded 10/19/2015
  • National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, Public Use In-Home, In-School, and Parent Questionnaire Data, Wave I:
    The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) is a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in the United States during the 1994-95 school year. The Add Health cohort has been followed into young adulthood with four in-home interviews, the most recent in 2008, when the sample was aged 24-32*. Add Health combines longitudinal survey data on respondents' social, economic, psychological and physical well-being with contextual data on the family, neighborhood, community, school, friendships, peer groups, and romantic relationships, providing unique opportunities to study how social environments and behaviors in adolescence are linked to health and achievement outcomes in young adulthood. The fourth wave of interviews expanded the collection of biological data in Add Health to understand the social, behavioral, and biological linkages in health trajectories as the Add Health cohort ages through adulthood. The fifth wave of data collection is planned to begin in 2016.

    Initiated in 1994 and supported by three program project grants from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) with co-funding from 23 other federal agencies and foundations, Add Health is the largest, most comprehensive longitudinal survey of adolescents ever undertaken. Beginning with an in-school questionnaire administered to a nationally representative sample of students in grades 7-12, the study followed up with a series of in-home interviews conducted in 1995, 1996, 2001-02, and 2008. Other sources of data include questionnaires for parents, siblings, fellow students, and school administrators and interviews with romantic partners. Preexisting databases provide information about neighborhoods and communities.

    Add Health was developed in response to a mandate from the U.S. Congress to fund a study of adolescent health, and Waves I and II focus on the forces that may influence adolescents' health and risk behaviors, including personal traits, families, friendships, romantic relationships, peer groups, schools, neighborhoods, and communities. As participants have aged into adulthood, however, the scientific goals of the study have expanded and evolved. Wave III, conducted when respondents were between 18 and 26** years old, focuses on how adolescent experiences and behaviors are related to decisions, behavior, and health outcomes in the transition to adulthood. At Wave IV, respondents were ages 24-32* and assuming adult roles and responsibilities. Follow up at Wave IV has enabled researchers to study developmental and health trajectories across the life course of adolescence into adulthood using an integrative approach that combines the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences in its research objectives, design, data collection, and analysis.

    * 52 respondents were 33-34 years old at the time of the Wave IV interview.
    ** 24 respondents were 27-28 years old at the time of the Wave III interview.

    Included in this dataset are the in-home interviews, in-school questionnaire, and parent questionnaire.
    Funded By: Department of Health and Human Services , National Institutes of Health , Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development , with cooperative funding from 23 other federal agencies and foundations.
    Collected: 1995, Uploaded 10/19/2015
  • National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, Public Use Network Data, Wave I:
    The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) is a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in the United States during the 1994-95 school year. The Add Health cohort has been followed into young adulthood with four in-home interviews, the most recent in 2008, when the sample was aged 24-32*. Add Health combines longitudinal survey data on respondents' social, economic, psychological and physical well-being with contextual data on the family, neighborhood, community, school, friendships, peer groups, and romantic relationships, providing unique opportunities to study how social environments and behaviors in adolescence are linked to health and achievement outcomes in young adulthood. The fourth wave of interviews expanded the collection of biological data in Add Health to understand the social, behavioral, and biological linkages in health trajectories as the Add Health cohort ages through adulthood. The fifth wave of data collection is planned to begin in 2016.

    Initiated in 1994 and supported by three program project grants from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) with co-funding from 23 other federal agencies and foundations, Add Health is the largest, most comprehensive longitudinal survey of adolescents ever undertaken. Beginning with an in-school questionnaire administered to a nationally representative sample of students in grades 7-12, the study followed up with a series of in-home interviews conducted in 1995, 1996, 2001-02, and 2008. Other sources of data include questionnaires for parents, siblings, fellow students, and school administrators and interviews with romantic partners. Preexisting databases provide information about neighborhoods and communities.

    Add Health was developed in response to a mandate from the U.S. Congress to fund a study of adolescent health, and Waves I and II focus on the forces that may influence adolescents' health and risk behaviors, including personal traits, families, friendships, romantic relationships, peer groups, schools, neighborhoods, and communities. As participants have aged into adulthood, however, the scientific goals of the study have expanded and evolved. Wave III, conducted when respondents were between 18 and 26** years old, focuses on how adolescent experiences and behaviors are related to decisions, behavior, and health outcomes in the transition to adulthood. At Wave IV, respondents were ages 24-32* and assuming adult roles and responsibilities. Follow up at Wave IV has enabled researchers to study developmental and health trajectories across the life course of adolescence into adulthood using an integrative approach that combines the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences in its research objectives, design, data collection, and analysis.

    * 52 respondents were 33-34 years old at the time of the Wave IV interview.
    ** 24 respondents were 27-28 years old at the time of the Wave III interview.

    This network data includes network variables constructed from the Add Health in-school data and friendship nominations.
    Funded By: Department of Health and Human Services , National Institutes of Health , Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development , with cooperative funding from 23 other federal agencies and foundations.
    Collected: 1995, Uploaded 10/19/2015
  • National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, Public Use Grand Sample Weights, Wave I:
    The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) is a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in the United States during the 1994-95 school year. The Add Health cohort has been followed into young adulthood with four in-home interviews, the most recent in 2008, when the sample was aged 24-32*. Add Health combines longitudinal survey data on respondents' social, economic, psychological and physical well-being with contextual data on the family, neighborhood, community, school, friendships, peer groups, and romantic relationships, providing unique opportunities to study how social environments and behaviors in adolescence are linked to health and achievement outcomes in young adulthood. The fourth wave of interviews expanded the collection of biological data in Add Health to understand the social, behavioral, and biological linkages in health trajectories as the Add Health cohort ages through adulthood. The fifth wave of data collection is planned to begin in 2016.

    Initiated in 1994 and supported by three program project grants from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) with co-funding from 23 other federal agencies and foundations, Add Health is the largest, most comprehensive longitudinal survey of adolescents ever undertaken. Beginning with an in-school questionnaire administered to a nationally representative sample of students in grades 7-12, the study followed up with a series of in-home interviews conducted in 1995, 1996, 2001-02, and 2008. Other sources of data include questionnaires for parents, siblings, fellow students, and school administrators and interviews with romantic partners. Preexisting databases provide information about neighborhoods and communities.

    Add Health was developed in response to a mandate from the U.S. Congress to fund a study of adolescent health, and Waves I and II focus on the forces that may influence adolescents' health and risk behaviors, including personal traits, families, friendships, romantic relationships, peer groups, schools, neighborhoods, and communities. As participants have aged into adulthood, however, the scientific goals of the study have expanded and evolved. Wave III, conducted when respondents were between 18 and 26** years old, focuses on how adolescent experiences and behaviors are related to decisions, behavior, and health outcomes in the transition to adulthood. At Wave IV, respondents were ages 24-32* and assuming adult roles and responsibilities. Follow up at Wave IV has enabled researchers to study developmental and health trajectories across the life course of adolescence into adulthood using an integrative approach that combines the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences in its research objectives, design, data collection, and analysis.

    * 52 respondents were 33-34 years old at the time of the Wave IV interview.
    ** 24 respondents were 27-28 years old at the time of the Wave III interview.

    Included here are weights to remove any differences between the composition of the sample and the estimated composition of the population. See the attached codebook for information regarding how these weights were calculated.
    Funded By: Department of Health and Human Services , National Institutes of Health , Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development , with cooperative funding from 23 other federal agencies and foundations.
    Collected: 1995, Uploaded 10/19/2015
  • Baylor Religion Survey, Wave IV (2014):
    Wave IV of the Baylor Religion Survey (2014), also known as "The Values and Beliefs of the American Public - A National Study," was administered by Gallup and funded by the John Templeton Foundation. It covers topics of religious behaviors and attitudes; morality, gender roles, and politics; family and religiosity; sexual orientation; work; race and ethnicity; guns and society; surveillance; science and the supernatural; and basic demographics.
    Funded By: The John Templeton Foundation
    Collected: 2014, Uploaded 6/21/2019
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-150]  (of 223 total matches in the Data Archive Files)
Investigators/Researchers
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-90]  (of 90 total matches in Investigators)
Questions/Variables on Surveys
  • SCINEWS3 from General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined
    You said you get most of your information about science and technology from the Internet. What is the place you are most likely to go on the Internet for science and technology information--online newspapers, online magazines or some other place on the Internet? IF RESPONDENT GIVES MORE THAN ONE PLACE OR SAYS ‘IT DEPENDS,' PROBE ONCE: Which site are you most likely to go on the Internet for science and technology information?
    0) Inapplicable
    1) Online newspapers
    2) Online magazines
    3) Science site
    4) News site
    5) Electronic books and reports
    8) Don't know
    9) No answer
  • MAJOR2 from General Social Survey, 2016
    What was your major or field of study when you received your (respondent's college degree) degree? Second mention
    0) Not applicable
    1) Accounting/Bookkeeping
    3) Agriculture/Horticulture
    5) Anthropology
    7) Art
    8) Biology
    9) Business Administration
    11) Chemistry
    12) Communications/Speech
    14) Computer Science
    15) Dentistry
    16) Education
    17) Economics
    18) Engineering
    19) English
    20) Finance
    21) Foreign Language
    23) Geography
    25) History
    28) Journalism
    29) Law
    31) Library Science
    32) Marketing
    33) Mathematics
    34) Medicine
    35) Music
    36) Nursing
    37) Optometry
    40) Physical Education
    41) Physics
    42) Psychology
    43) Political Science/International Relations
    44) Sociology
    45) Special Education
    46) Theater Arts
    47) Theology
    49) Liberal Arts
    50) Other
    51) General Sciences
    52) Social Work
    54) Other Vocational
    55) Health
    57) Child/Human/Family Development
    58) Food Science/Nutrition/Culinary Arts
    59) Environmental Science/Ecology
    60) Social Sciences
    61) Human Services/Human Resources
    62) Visual Arts/Graphic Design/Design and Drafting
    64) Humanities
    65) Ethnic Studies
    66) Educational administration
    69) Statistics/Biostatistics
    70) Criminology/Criminal Justice
    71) Administrative Science/Public Administration
    74) Mechanics/Machine Trade
    75) Dance
    77) Public Relations
    80) Information technology
    82) Counseling
  • MAJORCOL from General Social Survey, 2016
    In what field was that degree?
    0) Not applicable
    1) Accounting/Bookkeeping
    3) Agriculture
    4) Allied Health
    5) Anthropology
    6) Architecture
    7) Art
    8) Biology
    9) Business Administration
    11) Chemistry
    12) Communications/Speech
    14) Computer Science
    15) Dentistry
    16) Education
    17) Economics
    18) Engineering
    19) English
    20) Finance
    21) Foreign Language
    22) Forestry
    23) Geography
    24) Geology
    25) History
    26) Home Economics
    27) Industry & Technology
    28) Journalism
    29) Law
    30) Law Enforcement
    31) Library Science
    32) Marketing
    33) Mathematics
    34) Medicine
    35) Music
    36) Nursing
    38) Pharmacy
    39) Philosophy
    40) Physical Education
    41) Physics
    42) Psychology
    43) Political Science
    44) Sociology
    45) Special Education
    46) Theater Arts
    47) Theology
    49) Liberal Arts
    50) Other
    51) General Sciences
    52) Social Work
    53) General Studies
    54) Other Vocational
    55) Health
    57) Child/Human/Family Development
    58) Food Science/Nutrition/Culinary Arts
    59) Environment Science/Ecology
    60) Social Sciences
    61) Human Services/Human Resources
    62) Visual Arts/Graphic Design/Design and Drafting
    63) Fine Arts
    66) Educational Administration
    67) Television/Film
    69) Statistics
    70) Criminology/Criminal Justice
    71) Administrative Science/Public Administration
    72) Electronics
    73) Urban and Regional Planning
    77) Public Relations
    80) Information Technology
    81) Fashion
    82) Counseling
    99) No answer
  • SCINEWS3 from General Social Survey, 2016
    You said you get most of your information about science and technology from the Internet. What is the place you are most likely to go on the Internet for science and technology information--online newspapers, online magazines or some other place on the Internet? IF RESPONDENT GIVES MORE THAN ONE PLACE OR SAYS 'IT DEPENDS,' PROBE ONCE: Which site are you most likely to go on the Internet for science and technology information?
    0) Not applicable
    1) Online newspapers
    2) Online magazines
    3) Science site
    4) News site
    6) Wikipedia
    7) Government site
    8) Social media (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube)
    10) Other
    11) Search engine (Google, Bing)
    98) Don't know
    99) No answer
  • SCINEWS3 from General Social Survey 2014 Cross-Section and Panel Combined
    You said you get most of your information about science and technology from the Internet. What is the place you are most likely to go on the Internet for science and technology information--online newspapers, online magazines or some other place on the Internet? IF RESPONDENT GIVES MORE THAN ONE PLACE OR SAYS 'IT DEPENDS,' PROBE ONCE: Which site are you most likely to go on the Internet for science and technology information?
    0) Inapplicable
    1) Online newspapers
    2) Online magazines
    3) Science site
    4) News site
    5) Electronic books and reports
    6) Wikipedia
    7) Government site
    8) Social media (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube)
    10) Other
    11) Search engine (Google, Bing)
    98) Don't know
    99) No answer
  • SCINEWS3 from General Social Survey, 2018
    You said you get most of your information about science and technology from the Internet. What is the place you are most likely to go on the Internet for science and technology information - online newspapers, online magazines or some other place on the Internet? [If respondent gives more than one place or says 'it depends,' probe once] Which site are you most likely to go on the Internet for science and technology information?
    0) Not applicable
    1) Online newspapers
    2) Online magazines
    3) Science site
    4) News site
    5) Electronic books and reports
    6) Wikipedia
    7) Government site
    8) Social media (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube)
    10) Other
    11) Search engine (Google, Bing)
    98) Don't know
    99) No answer
  • VISSCI from General Social Survey, 2018
    A science or technology museum. How many times did you visit a science or technology museum during the last year?
    -1) Not applicable
    0) 0
    1) 1
    2) 2
    3) 3
    4) 4
    5) 5
    6) 6
    7) 7
    50) 50
    52) 52
  • MAJORCOL from General Social Survey 2014 Cross-Section and Panel Combined
    In what field was that degree?
    0) Inapplicable
    1) Accounting/Bookkeeping
    2) Advertising
    3) Agriculture
    4) Allied Health
    5) Anthropology
    6) Architecture
    7) Art
    8) Biology
    9) Business Administration
    11) Chemistry
    12) Communications/Speech
    13) Comm. Disorders
    14) Computer Science
    15) Dentistry
    16) Education
    17) Economics
    18) Engineering
    19) English
    20) Finance
    21) Foreign Language
    22) Forestry
    23) Geography
    24) Geology
    25) History
    26) Home Economics
    27) Industry & Technology
    28) Journalism
    29) Law
    30) Law Enforcement
    31) Library Science
    32) Marketing
    33) Mathematics
    34) Medicine
    35) Music
    36) Nursing
    40) Physical Education
    41) Physics
    42) Psychology
    43) Political Science
    44) Sociology
    45) Special Education
    46) Theater Arts
    47) Theology
    48) Veterinary Medicine
    49) Liberal Arts
    50) Other
    51) General Sciences
    52) Social Work
    53) General Studies
    54) Other Vocational
    55) Health
    57) Child development
    58) Food science/nutrition/culinary arts
    59) Environment science/studies
    60) Social sciences
    61) Human services
    62) Visual arts/graphic design
    63) Fine arts
    64) Humanities
    65) Ethnic studies
    66) Educational administration
    67) TV, film
    68) Aviation, aeronautics
    69) Statistics
    70) Criminology/Criminal Justice
    71) Administrative Science/Public Administration
    72) Electronics
    73) Urban and Regional Planning
    74) Mechanics/Machine Trade
    77) Public Relations
    78) Textiles/Cloth
    79) Parks and Recreation
    80) Information technology
    98) Don't know/Uncoded
    99) No answer
  • MAJOR2 from General Social Survey, 2018
    What was your major or field of study when you received your (respondent's college degree) degree? Second mention
    0) Not applicable
    1) Accounting/Bookkeeping
    3) Agriculture/Horticulture
    7) Art
    8) Biology
    9) Business Administration
    11) Chemistry
    12) Communications/Speech
    13) Comm. Disorders
    14) Computer Science
    15) Dentistry
    16) Education
    17) Economics
    19) English
    20) Finance
    21) Foreign Language
    23) Geography
    25) History
    28) Journalism
    29) Law
    31) Library Science
    32) Marketing
    33) Mathematics
    35) Music
    36) Nursing
    40) Physical Education
    43) Political Science/International Relations
    44) Sociology
    47) Theology
    49) Liberal Arts
    50) Other
    51) General Sciences
    54) Other Vocational
    55) Health
    57) Child/Human/Family Development
    59) Environmental Science/Ecology
    61) Human Services/Human Resources
    63) Fine Arts
    65) Ethnic Studies
    70) Criminology/Criminal Justice
    73) Urban and Regional Planning
    74) Mechanics/Machine Trade
    76) Gerontology
    80) Information technology
  • MAJOR1 from General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined
    What was your major or field of study when you received your (respondent's college degree) degree? First mention
    0) Inapplicable
    1) Accounting/Bookkeeping
    2) Advertising
    3) Agriculture/Horticulture
    5) Anthropology
    6) Architecture
    7) Art
    8) Biology
    9) Business Administration
    11) Chemistry
    12) Communications/Speech
    13) Comm. Disorders
    14) Computer Science
    15) Dentistry
    16) Education
    17) Economics
    18) Engineering
    19) English
    20) Finance
    21) Foreign Language
    22) Forestry
    24) Geology
    25) History
    27) Industry & Technology
    28) Journalism
    29) Law
    30) Law Enforcement
    31) Library Science
    32) Marketing
    33) Mathematics
    34) Medicine
    35) Music
    36) Nursing
    38) Pharmacy
    39) Philosophy
    40) Physical Education
    41) Physics
    42) Psychology
    43) Political Science/International Relations
    44) Sociology
    45) Special Education
    46) Theater Arts
    47) Theology
    48) Veterinary Medicine
    49) Liberal Arts
    50) Other
    51) General Sciences
    52) Social Work
    53) General Studies
    54) Other Vocational
    55) Health
    56) Industrial Relations
    57) Child/Human/Family Development
    58) Food Science/Nutrition/Culinary Arts
    59) Environmental Science/Ecology
    60) Social Sciences
    61) Human Services/Human Resources
    62) Visual Arts/Graphic Design/Design and Drafting
    63) Fine Arts
    65) Ethnic studies
    66) Educational administration
    68) Aviation/Aeronautics
    70) Criminology/Criminal Justice
    71) Administrative Science/Public Administration
    72) Electronics
    73) Urban and Regional Planning
    75) Dance
    76) Gerontology
    77) Public Relations
    78) Textiles/Cloth
    79) Parks and Recreation
    98) Don't know/Uncoded
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-150]  (of 1402 total matches in Data Archive Questions/Variables)
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