Site Features
[Viewing Matches 1-6]  (of 6 total matches in Site Features)
Timeline
  • Auburn Affirmation: In 1924, the Auburn Affirmation denounced the Five Point Deliverance as a necessary means for ordination in the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A.
  • The Primitive Baptists Coalesce: In 1827, the Primitive Baptists began forming in response to growing Baptist denominationalism.
  • Warfield, Benjamin : B. B. Warfield (1851-1921) ranks in the forefront of great Presbyterian theologians of Princeton Seminary.
  • Eddy, Mary Baker: Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910) founded the Christian Science movement.
  • Trial of Albert Barnes: The trial of Presbyterian minister Albert Barnes regarding his unorthodox theology in 1835 increased tensions between Old School and New School Presbyterians.
  • Russell, Charles Taze: Charles Taze Russell (1852-1916) sparked the religious tradition later known as the Jehovah's Witnesses.
  • Crosby, Frances "Fanny": Fanny Crosby (1820-1915) wrote thousands of famous hymns, including "Blessed Assurance," "Jesus Keep Me Near the Cross," and "To God Be the Glory."
  • Memorial Movement: With early origins in the 1780s, the memorial movement highlights how Americans commonly commemorate the dead in visual and material forms.
  • Woosley, Louisa : Louisa Woosley (1862-1952) was the first female ordained minister in the Presbyterian Church.
  • Orthodox Presbyterian Church Founded: In 1936, discontented conservative Presbyterians left the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America to form the Orthodox Presbyterian Church.
  • Miller, William : William Miller (1782-1849) predicted that the return of Christ would occur in 1843, garnering both religious fervor and criticism.
  • Koresh, David : David Koresh was leader of the Branch Davidians, a breakaway Seventh-day Adventist group, during the 1993 FBI siege on their compound in Waco, Texas.
  • Harriet Beecher Stowe Publishes Uncle Tom's Cabin: In 1852, Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811-1886) spread a powerful message that slavery was evil and Christian love could eradicate it.
[Viewing Matches 1-13]  (of 13 total matches in Timelines)
Measurements
[Viewing Matches 1-1]  (of 1 total matches in Measurement Concepts)
ARDA Dictionary
  • Scriptures:A term often used to denote sacred writings of different religions. Commonly, the authority of the scriptures is believed to come from God (e.g., Christianity, Judaism, and Islam), and sometimes it is believed to come from a legendary person (e.g., Confucianism and Buddhism). Popular scriptures include the Christian Bible, the Torah, the Koran, and the Vedas (Hinnells 1984: 289).
  • Sola Scriptura:A Latin phrase translated as "by Scripture alone," used in the Protestant tradition to signify that biblical scriptures are the ultimate authority of faith and practice. This was a response to the Catholic emphasis on church traditions as an authority (Reid et al. 1990: 1111).
  • Feminist Theology:A system of religious thought that interprets practices and scriptures through a feminist perspective. It tends to challenge male-dominance in religious language, authority, and scripture. This perspective spans across Christian, Jewish, Muslim, and other religions (Lippy and Williams 2000).
  • Christian Science Family:Churches following the teachings of founder Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910) , who believed that personal healing was the central message of Christianity. She believed that the correct interpretation of Scripture would alleviate disease, suffering, and even death according to her book Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (1875). The movement became more of an institution in 1879. Worship services include readings from the Bible as well as Eddy's "Science and Health." The largest group in the Christian Science family is the Church of Christ, Scientist (Smith and Green 1995: 264).
  • Bhagavad Gita:The most popular scripture in contemporary Hinduism. It is part of a Hindu epic called the Mahabharata, written in Sanskrit between 200 BCE and 200 CE, and discusses Hindu ethics (Prothero 2008: 201).
  • Kama Sutra:A popular Hindu scripture, originally intended as a sex manual for courtesans. It was written around 400 CE by Hindu thinker Vatsyayana. It provides different types of kisses and different sexual positions for intercourse (Prothero 2008: 244).
  • Qiyas:A legal term in Islam that refers to analogical reasoning. This form of deduction often is used in order to understand whether something is forbidden, even if not explicitly stated in any Islamic scriptures (Esposito et al. 2012b: G-9).
  • Biblical Literalism:The extent to which individuals believe that the Bible (or other sacred scriptures) should be interpreted literally. Social surveys that are interested in religion often ask a question pertaining to biblical literalism, though the question wording and response options can vary.
  • People of the Book (Ahl al-Kitab):In Islam, this refers to non-Muslims who possess some revelation or scripture from God. Jews and Christians make up this group, and sometimes Zoroastrians are included (Esposito et al. 2012b: G-9).
  • Jainism:An ancient Indian religion that teaches no supreme deity, although some Hindu gods are recognized. The religion stresses non-violence and takes its authority from spiritual teachers known as Jinas. There are two major sects, the Digambaras and Shvetambara, and both have different canons of scripture (Parrinder 1973: 141).
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-25]  (of 25 total matches in the ARDA Dictionary)
Religious Groups
[Viewing Matches 1-1]  (of 1 total matches in Religious Groups)
Teaching Tools
[Viewing Matches 1-1]  (of 1 total matches in Teaching Tools)
Citations
Citations are taken from the Sociology of Religion Searchable Bibliographic Database, created and updated by Anthony J. Blasi (Ph.D. in Sociology, University of Notre Dame; University of Texas at San Antonio). The ARDA is not responsible for content or typographical errors.
  • Agents of God: Boundaries and Authority in Muslim and Christian Schools.
    Guhin, Jeffrey (2020)
    New York: Oxford University Press.
    2 Evangelical & 2 Sunni Muslim schools use boundaries of politics, gender, & sexuality to distinguish themselves from the secular world. The book's 1st half highlights boundaries that show the students who they are not; the 2nd half shows how the schools use science, scripture, & prayer to teach them who they are. Issues are sexuality & evolution.
    Associated Search Terms: Evangelical, U.S.A.; Evolution; Education; United States, New York, New York; Sexuality; Islam, U.S.A.
  • Scriptural coping: An empirical test of hermeneutic theory.
    DeAngelis, Reed T., John P. Bartkowski, and Xiaohe Xu (2019)
    Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 58:1: 174-191.
    Analyzes 2012 General Social Survey (U.S.A.) data. Poor self-rated health & low SES positively predict reading scripture for insights into health & financial status, respectively. Concerning health, reading scripture seems to exacerbate depressive consequences of poor health.
    Associated Search Terms: Depression; Health; Hermeneutic; Coping; Bible reading; Stratification
  • Clerics and scriptures:Experimentally disentanglin the influence of authority in Afghanistan.
    Condra, Luke N., Mohammad Isaqzadeh, and Sera Linardi (2019)
    British Journal of Political Science 49:2: 401-419.
    A cleric requests contributions for a hospital from day laborers in Afghanistan 1) dressed in civilian clothes, 2) dressed as a cleric, & 3) dressed as a cleric & reciting a Queranic verse. The last elicited the most & largest contributions.
    Associated Search Terms: Experiment; Authority; Contributions; Clergy influence; Clothing
  • Alpha, omega, and the letters in between: LGBTQI conservative Christians undoing gender.
    Moon, Dawne, Theresa W. Tobin, and J.E. Sumerau (2019)
    Gender & Society 33:4: 583-606.
    Explores the movement for acceptance of sexual minorities and its ambivalent relationship with homonormativity, highlights three ways this movement resists projecting binary gender narratives into scripture, and examines how some in this movement see the pursuit of social justice as a Christian mandate.
    Associated Search Terms: Social movement; Homosexuality
  • Social Science and the Christian Scriptures: Sociological Introductions and New Translation (3 vols.)
    Blasi, Anthony J. (2017)
    Eugene, Oregon: Wimpf & Stock.
    Sociological theories, cued in by the New Testament texts, are given for each book of the New Testament, in their order of composition, so as to provide a series of "stills" in the early development of the Christian movement.
    Associated Search Terms: Early Christian
  • Why worry about evolution? Boundries, practices, and moral salience in Sunni and Evangelical high schools.
    Guhim, Jeffrey (2016)
    Sociological Theory 34:2: 151-174.
    Based on participant observation in 2 Sunni & 2 Evangelical schools in New York City. Evolution is a greater problem for Evangelicals because of their literal interpretation of scripture.
    Associated Search Terms: Evangelical, U.S.A.; Comparative; Education; Literalism; United States, New York, New York; Participant observation; Moral; Islam, U.S.A.
  • Religion and attitudes toward redistributive policies among Americans.
    McCarthy, Angela Farizo, Nicholas T. Davis, James C. Garand, and Laura R. Olson (2016)
    Political Research Quarterly 6: 121-133.
    Analyzes 2013 Economic Values Survey (Public Religion Research Institute) data. Religious affiliation & participation do not meaningfully shape attitudes toward redistributive policies; identification with the “religious right” & specific interpretations of scripture do influence how Americans think about redistribution.
    Associated Search Terms: Justice; Politics, U.S.A.; Conservative, U.S.A.
  • Hell to pay: Religion and punitive ideology among the American public.
    Baker, Joseph O., and Alexis L. Booth (2016)
    Punishment & Society 18:2: 151-176.
    We examine whether & how different aspects of religiosity shape punitive attitudes, using a national sample of Americans. For both general punitiveness & views of capital punishment, belief in the existence & power of transcendent religious evil (e.g. Satan & hell) is strongly associated with greater punitiveness, while higher levels of religious practice (service attendance, prayer, & reading sacred scriptures) reduces punitiveness.
    Associated Search Terms: Punitiveness; Penology
  • Deviating from Religious Norms and the Mental Health of Conservative Protestants.
    Mannheimer, Andrew H., and Terrence D. Hill (2015)
    Journal of Religion and Health 54:5: 1826-1838.
    Analyzes representative data from Texas; falling short of population average levels for church attendance & reading of religious scripture is associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Interestingly, falling short of population averages for prayer is unrelated to psychological distress, depressive symptoms, & anxiety.
    Associated Search Terms: Practice; Prayer; Mental health; Stress; Deviance/social control; Conservative; Bible reading
  • British Muslim youth and religious fundamentalism: A quantitative investigation.
    Kashyap, Ridhi, and Valerie A. Lewis (2013)
    Ethnic and Racial Studies 36:12: 2117-2140.
    Young Muslims attribute a greater salience to Islam for their personal identity, even though they pray & read scripture less, & support plural interpretations of Islam more than their elders. Like other youth, Muslim youth show liberalizing social attitudes across generations on gay marriage & legal abortion.
    Associated Search Terms: Fundamentalism; Great Britain; Youth; Islam, Great Britain
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-46]  (of 46 total matches in Citations)
Data Archive
  • General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined:
    The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This data file has all cases and variables asked on the 2012 GSS. There are a total of 4,820 cases in the data set but their initial sampling years vary because the GSS now contains panel cases. Sampling years can be identified with the variable SAMPTYPE.

    The 2012 GSS featured special modules on religious scriptures, the environment, dance and theater performances, health care system, government involvement, health concerns, emotional health, financial independence and income inequality.

    The GSS has switched from a repeating, cross-section design to a combined repeating cross-section and panel-component design. This file has a rolling panel design, with the 2008 GSS as the base year for the first panel. A sub-sample of 2,000 GSS cases from 2008 was selected for reinterview in 2010 and again in 2012 as part of the GSSs in those years. The 2010 GSS consisted of a new cross-section plus the reinterviews from 2008. The 2012 GSS consists of a new cross-section of 1,974, the first reinterview wave of the 2010 panel cases with 1,551 completed cases, and the second and final reinterview of the 2008 panel with 1,295 completed cases. Altogether, the 2012 GSS had 4,820 cases (1,974 in the new 2012 panel, 1,551 in the 2010 panel, and 1,295 in the 2008 panel).

    To download syntax files for the GSS that reproduce well-known religious group recodes, including RELTRAD, please visit the ARDA's Syntax Repository .
    Funded By: National Science Foundation
    Collected: 2012, Uploaded 10/16/2013
  • General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined, (Inapplicable Responses Coded as Missing):
    This file differs from the General Social Survey 2012 in that all inapplicable values are set to system missing. The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This data file has all cases and variables asked on the 2012 GSS. There are a total of 4,820 cases in the data set but their initial sampling years vary because the GSS now contains panel cases. Sampling years can be identified with the variable SAMPTYPE.

    The 2012 GSS featured special modules on religious scriptures, the environment, dance and theater performances, health care system, government involvement, health concerns, emotional health, financial independence and income inequality.

    The GSS has switched from a repeating, cross-section design to a combined repeating cross-section and panel-component design. This file has a rolling panel design, with the 2008 GSS as the base year for the first panel. A sub-sample of 2,000 GSS cases from 2008 was selected for reinterview in 2010 and again in 2012 as part of the GSSs in those years. The 2010 GSS consisted of a new cross-section plus the reinterviews from 2008. The 2012 GSS consists of a new cross-section of 1,974, the first reinterview wave of the 2010 panel cases with 1,551 completed cases, and the second and final reinterview of the 2008 panel with 1,295 completed cases. Altogether, the 2012 GSS had 4,820 cases (1,974 in the new 2012 panel, 1,551 in the 2010 panel, and 1,295 in the 2008 panel).

    To download syntax files for the GSS that reproduce well-known religious group recodes, including RELTRAD, please visit the ARDA's Syntax Repository .
    Funded By: National Science Foundation
    Collected: 2012, Uploaded 3/17/2014
  • General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined - Instructional Dataset:
    This file contains all of the cases and variables that are in the original 2012 General Social Survey, but is prepared for easier use in the classroom. Changes have been made in two areas. First, to avoid confusion when constructing tables or interpreting basic analysis, all missing data codes have been set to system missing. Second, many of the continuous variables have been categorized into fewer categories, and added as additional variables to the file.

    The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This data file has all cases and variables asked on the 2012 GSS. There are a total of 4,820 cases in the data set but their initial sampling years vary because the GSS now contains panel cases. Sampling years can be identified with the variable SAMPTYPE.

    The 2012 GSS featured special modules on religious scriptures, the environment, dance and theater performances, health care system, government involvement, health concerns, emotional health, financial independence and income inequality.

    The GSS has switched from a repeating, cross-section design to a combined repeating cross-section and panel-component design. This file has a rolling panel design, with the 2008 GSS as the base year for the first panel. A sub-sample of 2,000 GSS cases from 2008 was selected for reinterview in 2010 and again in 2012 as part of the GSSs in those years. The 2010 GSS consisted of a new cross-section plus the reinterviews from 2008. The 2012 GSS consists of a new cross-section of 1,974, the first reinterview wave of the 2010 panel cases with 1,551 completed cases, and the second and final reinterview of the 2008 panel with 1,295 completed cases. Altogether, the 2012 GSS had 4,820 cases (1,974 in the new 2012 panel, 1,551 in the 2010 panel, and 1,295 in the 2008 panel).

    To download syntax files for the GSS that reproduce well-known religious group recodes, including RELTRAD, please visit the ARDA's Syntax Repository .
    Funded By: National Science Foundation
    Collected: 2012, Uploaded 10/9/2014
[Viewing Matches 1-3]  (of 3 total matches in the Data Archive Files)
Questions/Variables on Surveys
[Viewing Matches 1-10] > [View Matches 1-150]  (of 561 total matches in Data Archive Questions/Variables)
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