The Religion and State Project
Hosted by theARDA

Below are a list of publications sorted by publication data which use the RAS dataset. If you are aware of any publications using the RAS dataset which are not on this list, please contact Jonathan Fox (click here to email).

The RAS project sends periodic e-mail notices of updates to the dataset and of new publications using the data. To be added to the mailing list please contact Jonathan Fox (click here to email).


Carsten Anckar. Religion and Democracy: A Worldwide Comparison, (New York, NY: Routledge, 2011).

Cesari, Jocelyne What Is Political Islam? Boulder, CO: Lyne Reinner, 2018.

Elizabeth Clark & Dmytro Vovk Religion During the Russian-Ukrainian Conflict, Routledge, 2019.

Driessen, Michael D. Religion and Democratization: Framing Religious and Political identities in Muslim and Catholic Societies, New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2014.

Jonathan Fox Thou Shalt Have No Other Gods before Me: Why Governments Discriminate Against Religious Minorities, Cambridge University Press, 2020.

Fox, Jonathan An Introduction to Religion and Politics: Theory and Practice, 2nd Edition, New York, NY: Routledge, 2018.

Jonathan Fox The Correlates of Religion and State, (New York, NY: Routledge, 2019) (This book also appears as a special edition of Religion State & Society, 47 (1), 2019).

Jonathan Fox. The Unfree Exercise of Religion: A World Survey of Religious Discrimination against Religious Minorities, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2016).

Jonathan Fox. Political Secularism, Religion, and the State: A Time Series Analysis of Worldwide Data, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015).

Jonathan Fox. An Introduction to Religion and Politics: Theory and Practice, (London, UK: Routledge, 2013)

Jonathan Fox, ed. Religion, Politics, Society, and the State, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012).

Jonathan Fox A World Survey of Religion and the State, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008)

Grzymala-Busse, Anna. Nations Under God: How Churches use Moral Authority to Influence Policy, Princeton, NJ: University Press, 2015.

Peter S. Henne Islamic Politics, Muslim States, and Counterterrorism Tensions, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2016.

Mirjam Kunkler, John Madeley, & Shylashri Shankar, A Secular Age Beyond the West: Religion, Law and the State in Asia, The Middle East and North Africa, New York, NY, Cambridge University Press, 2018.

Zeev Maoz & Errol A. Henderson Scriptures, Shrines, Scapegoats, and World Politics: Religious Sources of Conflict and Cooperation in the Modern Era, Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2020.

Mosk, Carl Capitalism and Religion in World History: Purification and Progress, Routledge, 2017.

Müller Olaf Kirchlichkeit und Religiosität in Ostmittel- und Osteuropa. Entwicklungen - Muster - Bestimmungsgründe. (Church religion and religiosity in Central and Eastern Europe. Developments - Pattern - Determinants), Wiesbaden: Springer VS., 2013, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-531-19851-4.

Nilay Saiya, Weapons of Peace: How Religious Liberty Combats Terrorism, New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2019.

Feryal M. Cherif Myths about Women's Rights: How, Where, and Why Rights Advance, New York, NY: Oxford university Press, 2015.

Pollack, Detlaf and Gergely Rosta Religion and Modernity: An International Comparison, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Sarkissian, Ani The Varieties of Religious Repression: Why Governments Restrict Religion, New York, NY: Oxford University Press 2015.

Nukhet Sandal & Jonathan Fox. Religion in International Relations Theory: Concepts, Tools, and Debates, (London: Routledge, 2013).

Eric Uslaner The Bulging Pocket and the Rule of Law: Corruption, Inequality, and Trust (Cambridge University Press, 2008).

Articles & Book Chapters


Senem Ertan "The Impact of Regional International Parliaments on Governments' Policy Frameworks for Gender Equality" Politics & Gender, 2020, doi:10.1017/S1743923X20000021.

Emilia J. Powell, Steven C. McDowell, Robert O'Brien, & Julia Oksasoglu,"Islam-Based Legal language and State Governance: Democracy, Strength if the Judiciary and Human Rights" Constitutional Political Economy, 2020,

Ariel Zellman & Jonathan Fox “Defending the Faith? Assessing the Impact of State Religious Exclusivity on Territorial MID Initiation” Politics & Religion,, 2020 DOI:


Matthias Basedau, Jonathan Fox, Christopher Huber, Arne Pieters, Tom Konzack, & Mora Deitch “Introducing the ‘Religious Minorities at Risk' Dataset” Peace Economics, Peace Science, and Public Policy, 2019, DOI: 10.1515/peps-2019-0028.

Catherine Bolzendahl, Landon Schnabel, & Rottem Sagi "Religion and Democratic Citizenship: A Multilevel Examination" Politics & Religion 12 (4), 2019, 577-605.

Andrew Bramsen and Zoe Vermeer “Religious Regulation in Muslim States” in William R. Thompson, ed. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics, 2019, 1-16, DOI: 10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.013.690

Catherine Bolzendahl, Landon Schnabel, & Rottem Sagi "Religion and Democratic Citizenship: A Multilevel Examination" Politics & Religion, 2019doi:10.1017/S1755048319000087

Brown, Davis "Religion and State Entanglement and Interstate Armed Conflict Initiation, 1990-2010, Religion, State & Society, 47(1), 2019, 48-66, DOI:10.1080/09637494.2018.1528786.

Buckley, David T. "Religion-State Relations and Public Opinion: Norms, Institutions and Social Consensus" Religion, State & Society, 47:1,2019, 104-123, DOI:10.1080/09637494.2018.1530404.

Christine Fair & Parina Patel “Explaining Why Some Muslims Support Islamist Political Violence” Political Science Quarterly, 314 (2) 2019, 245-276.

Roger Finke & Dane R. Mataic “Promises, Practices, and Consequences of Religious Freedom: A Global Overview” University of St. Thomas Law Journal, 15 (3), 2019, 587-606.

Jonathan Fox “Religious Discrimination in Christian-Majority Democracies from 1990 to 2014" Politics and Religion Journal, 13 (2), 2019, 285-308.

Jonathan Fox “Civilizational Clash or Balderdash? The Causes of Religious Discrimination in Western European Christian-Majority Democracies” Review of Faith in International Affairs, 17 (1), 2019, 34-48.

Jonathan Fox, “Religious Regulation: Discrimination Against Religious Minorities” in Paul A. Djupe and Mark J. Rozell, eds. Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics & Religion, New York: Oxford University Press, 2019. DOI:10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.013.839

Jonathan Fox, “Religious Regulation: The Regulation of All Religion in a Country” in Paul A. Djupe and Mark J. Rozell, eds. Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics & Religion, New York: Oxford University Press, 2019. Pp. 1-22. DOI:10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.013.838.

Fox, Jonathan "The Correlates of Religion and State: an Introduction" Religion, State & Society, 47 (1), 2019, 2-9. DOI: 10.1080/09637494.2018.1529269

Fox, Jonathan, "A World Survey of Secular-Religious Competition: State Religion policy from 1990 to 2014" Religion, State & Society, 47 (1), 2019, 10-29.

Moamen Gouda & Juerg Gutmann “Islamic Constitutions and Religious Minorities” Public Choice, 2019,

Henne, Peter S. "Government Interference in Religious Institutions and Terrorism"Religion, State & Society, 47 (1), 2019, 67-86, DOI: 10.1080/09637494.2018.1533691.

Brandon Ives, “Religious Institutionalism: A Domestic Explanation for External Support of Rebel Groups” International Interactions, 2019, DOI: 10.1080/03050629.2019.1621309.

Dan Koev " Not Taking it on Faith: State and Religious Influences on European Court of Human Rights Judges in Freedom of Religion Cases", Journal of Human Rights, 18 (2), 184-200, DOI: 10.1080/14754835.2019.1588715.

Tom Larsson, “The Political Economy of State Patronage of Religion: Evidence from Thailand” International Political Science Review, 40 (4), 2019, 576-590.

Mantilla, Luis F. "Feed the Church, Starve the Party? Church-State Relations and Religious Political Mobilisation in 21 Catholic-Majority Countries, Religion, State & Society, 47 (1), 2019, 87-103. DOI: 10.1080/09637494.2018.1533296.

Mataic Dane R. & Roger Finke "Compliance Gaps and the Failed Promises of Religious Freedoms" Religion, State & Society, 47 (1), 2019, 124-150. DOI:10.1080/09637494.2018.1528788.

Molle, Andrea "Religion and Right-Wing Populism in Italy: Using ‘Judeo-Christian Roots’ to Kill the European Union" Religion, State & Society, 47 (1), 151-168, DOI:10.1080/09637494.2018.1532266.

Stratos Patrikios, & Georgios Xezonakis “Religious Market Structure and Democratic Performance: Clientalism” Electoral Studies, 61, 2019, 1-11,

Raymond, Christopher D. “Religious Diversity and the Number of Religious Parties Around the World” Representation, 2019, DOI: 10.1080/00344893.2019.1592014.

Nilay Saiya & Stuti Manchanda “Do Burqa Bans Make Us Safer? Veil Prohibitions and Terrorism in Europe”, Journal of European Public Policy, 2019, 1-20 DOI: 10.1080/13501763.2019.1681494.

Elmar Sclueter, Anu Masso & Eldad Davidiv "What factors explain anti-Muslim prejudice? An assessment of the effects of Muslim population size, institutional characteristics and immigration-related media claims" Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 2019.

Scott N. Seigel “Rainbows and Crosses: Noncompliance with EU Law Prohibiting Sexual Orientation Discrimination” Journal of European Social Policy, 2019, 1-18.

Johannes Vullers "Mobilization for Peace: Religious Peace Activism" Conflicts Management and Peace Science, 2019.


Akbabba, Yasemin & Jonathan Fox "Societal Rather than Governmental Change: Religious Discrimination in Muslim-Majority Countries after the Arab Uprisings" All Azimuth, 2018, doi: 10.20991/allazimuth.424929.

Arikan, Gizem & Pazit Ben-Nun Bloom "Religion and Political Protest: A Cross Country Analysis" Comparative Political Studies, 2018, doi/10.1177/0010414018774351.

Basedau, Matthias & Johanna Schaefer-Kehnert "Religious Discrimination and Religious Armed Conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Obvious Relationship?" Religion, State & Society, 47 (1), 2018, 30-47, DOI: 10.1080/09637494.2018.1531617.

Conway, Brian & Bram Spryut "Catholic Commitment Around the Globe: A 52-Country Analysis" Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 2018,

Fox, Jonathan, Roger Finke and Dane R. Mataic "New Data and Measures on Societal Discrimination and Religious Minorities" Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion, 14 (14), 2018.

Fox, Jonathan, Roger Finke, & Marie A. Eisenstein "Examining the Causes of Government-Based Discrimination against Minorities in Western Democracies Societal-level Discrimination and Securitization" Comparative European Politics, 2018 doi: 10.1057/s41295-018-0134-1.

Gouda, Moamen & Jerg Gutmann "Islamic constitutions and Religious Minorities" ILE Working Paper Series, No. 19, University of Hamburg, Institute of Law and Economics (ILE), 2018 Hamburg.

Kang, Alice J. & Aili M. Tripp "Coalitions Matter: Citizenship, Women, and Quota Adoption in Africa" Perspectives on Politics, 16 (1), 2018, 73-91.

Knill, Christoph, Xavier Fernandez-i-Marin, Emma Budde, & Stephen Heichel "Religious Tides: The Time-Variant Effect of Religion on Morality Politics" Regulation and Governance, 2018, doi:10.1111/rego.12203

Lu, Yun & Fenggang Yang "Does State Repression Suppress the Protest Participation of Religious People" Sociology of Religion, 2018, doi: 10.1093/socrel/sry029

Mataic, Dane R. "Countries Mimicking Neighbors: The Spatial Diffusion of Governmental Restrictions on Religion" Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 2018,

Menchik, Jeremy "Soft Separation and Democracy" Politics & Religion, 2018, doi:10.1017/S1755048318000329

Patrikios, Stratos & Fabrizio De Francesco "Churches and Firms: An Exploration of Regulatory Similarities" Socio-Economic Review, 2018, doi: 10.1093/ser/mwy013.

Raymond, Christopher "Socioeconomic Development and Party System Fragmentation Cross-Nationally" Politics & Policy, 46 (5), 2018, 731-758. Doi:10.1111/polp.12272

Schleutker, Elina "Discrimination Against Religious Minorities" Journal of Church and State, 2018, doi:10.1093/jcs/csy031


Yasemin Akbabba & Jonathan Fox "Societal Rather than Governmental Change: Religious Discrimination in Muslim-Majority Countries after the Arab Uprisings" All Azimuth, 2018, doi: 10.20991/allazimuth.424929.

Alexander, Kathryn J. "Religiosity and Bellicosity: The Impact of Religious Commitment on Patterns of Interstate Conflict" Journal of Global Security Studies, 2 (4), 2017, 271-287.

Roger Finke, Dane R. Mataic, Jonathan Fox "Assessing the Impact of Religious Registration" Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 56 (4), 2017, 720-736.

Brown, Davis "The Influence of Religion on Interstate Armed Conflict: Government Religious Preference and First Use of Force, 1946-2002" Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 2017, DOI: 10.1111

Budde, Emma T., Christoph Knill, Xavier Fernanzez-i-Marin, & Carline Preidel "A Matter of Timing: The Religious Factor and Morality Policies" Governance, 2017, DOI: 10.1111/gove.12296, 1-17.

Carlo-Gonzalez, Celin, Christopher McKallagat, and Jenifer Whitten-Woodring. "The Rainbow Effect: Media Freedom, Internet Access, and Gay Rights." Social Science Quarterly, 98 (3), 2017, 1061-1077.

Driessen, Michael D. "Sources of Muslim Democracy: The Supply and Demand of Religious Policies in the Muslim World" Democratization, 2017,, 1-22.

Roger Finke, Robert Martin, & Jonathan Fox "Explaining Religious Discrimination against Religious Minorities" Politics & Religion, 10 (2), 2017, 389-416. doi:10.1017/S1755048317000037.

Fox, Jonathan, Christopher Bader, & Jennifer McClure "Don't Get Mad: The Disconnect between Religious Discrimination and Individual Perceptions of Government" Conflict Management & Peace Science, 2017, DOI: 10.1177/0738894217723160.

Fox, Jonathan, "Religious Discrimination in European and Western Christian-Majority Democracies" Zeitschrift fur Religion, Gesellschaft und Politik (Journal for Religion, Society and Politics), 2017,

Kim, Dongsuk & Hyun Jin Choi "Autocracy, Religious Restriction, and Religious Civil War" Politics and Religion, 10 (2), 2017, 311-388.

Minkenberg, Michael "Between Christian and Multicultural Democracy: Religious Legacies and Minority Politics" West European Politics, 2017,, 1-27.

Perez, Nahshon, Jonathan Fox & Jennifer M. McClure "Unequal State Support of Religion: On Resentment, Equality, and the Separation of Religion and State" Politics, Religion & Ideology, 2017, DOI: 10.1080/21567689.2017.1400429

Trittler, Sabine "Explaining Differences in the Salience of Religion as a Symbolic Boundary of National Belonging in Europe" European Sociological Review, 33 (5), 2017, 708-720.


Jocelyne Cesari, "Disciplining Religion: The Role of the State and its Consequences for Democracy" Journal of Religious and Political Practices, 2 (2), 2016, 135-144.

Jocelyne Cesari & Jonathan Fox "Institutional Relations rather than Clashes of Civilizations: When and How is Religion Compatible with Democracy?" International Political Sociology, 2016, doi: 10.1093/ips/olw011.

Jonathan Fox '"Secular-Religious Competition in Western Democracies: 1990 to 2014" Journal of Religious and Political Practice, 2 (2), 2016, 155-174.

Jonathan Fox "Freedom of Religion in Southeast Asia: An Empirical Analysis" Review of Faith in International Affairs, 14(4), 2016, 28-40.

Isaacs, Matthew "Sacred Violence or Strategic Faith? Disentangling the Relationship Between Religion and Violence in Armed Conflict" Journal of Peace Research, 53 (2), 2016, 211-225.

Nilay Saiya, "Religion, State, and Terrorism: A Global Analysis" Terrorism and Political Violence, 2016, DOI: 10.1080/09546553.2016.1211525


Matthias Basedau, Jonathan Fox, Jan Pierskalla, Georg Strüver & Johannes Vüllers "Does Discrimination Breed Grievances and do Grievances Breed Violence? New Evidence from and Analysis of Religious minorities in Developing Countries" Conflict Management and Peace Science, 2015, DOI: 10.1177/0738894215581329.

Ben-Nun Bloom, Pazit "State-Level Restriction of Religious Freedom and Women's Rights: A Global Analysis" Political Studies, 2015, doi: 10.1111/1467-9248.12212

Winston Chou "Seen Like a State: How Illegitimacy Shapes Terrorism Designation" Social Forces, 2015, doi: 10.1093/sf/sov083.

Jonathan Fox "Equal Opportunity Oppression: Religious Persecution Is a Global Problem" Foreign Affairs Website,, September 1, 2015.

Jonathan Fox "The Secular-Religious Competition Perspective" in Luke M. Herrington, Alasdair McKay, & Jeffrey Haynes Nations Under God: The Geopolitics of Faith in the Twenty-First Century, Bristol, UK: E-International Relations Publications, 2015.

Fox, Jonathan "Empirical Evidence Regarding the Influence of Free Speech and Religious Freedom on Public Order and Public Morality" Review of Faith in International Affairs, 13 (1), 2015, 59-68. DOI: 10.1080/15570274.2015.1005915

Jonathan Fox & Yasemin Akbaba "Securitization of Islam and Religious Discrimination: Religious Minorities in Western Democracies, 1990 to 2008" Comparative European Politics, 13 (2), 2015, 175-197.

Guttman, Jerg & Stefan Voigt "The Rule of Law and Constitutionalism in Muslim Countries" Public Choice 162 (3-4), 2015, 351-380.

Marc Helbling & Richard Traunmuller "How State Support for Religion Shapes Attitudes Toward Muslim Immigrants: New Evidence from a Sub-National Comparison" Comparative Political Studies, 2015, DOI: 10.1177/0010414015612388

Htun, Mala & S. Laurel Weldon "Religious Power, The State, Women’s Rights and Family Law" Politics & Gender, 11 (3), 2015, 451-477.

Jaime-Castillo, Antonio M, Juan J. Fernandez, Celia Vailente, & Damin Maryl "Collective Religiosity and the Gender Gap in Attitudes Towards Economic Redistribution in 86 Countries, 1990-2008" Social Science Research, 57 (1), 17-30.

Christipher Knill & Caroline Proidel "Institutional Opportunity Structures and the Catholic Church: Explaining Variation in the Regulation of Same-Sex Partnerships in Ireland and Italy" Journal of European Public Policy, 22 (3), 2015, 374-390.

Saiya, Nilay "The Religious Freedom Peace" The International Journal of Human Rights, 19 (3), 2015, 369-382.

Schneider, Friedrich, Katharina Linsbauer, & Friedrich Heinemann "Religion and the Shadow Economy" Kyklos, 68 (1), 2015, 111-141.


Driessen, Michael D. "Regime Type, Religion-State Arrangements, and Religious Markets in the Muslim World" Sociology of Religion, 2014, doi:10.1093/socrel/sru034

Finke, Roger & Robert R. Martin "Ensuring Liberties: Understanding State Restrictions on Religious Freedoms" Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 53 (4), 2014, 687-705.

Helberg, Marc "Opposing Muslims and the Muslim Headscarf in Western Europe" European Sociological Review, January 13, 2014, DOI:10.1093/esr/jct038.

Kolbe, Melanie & Peter S. Henne "The Effect of Religious Restrictions on Forced Migration" Politics & Religion, 2014, doi:10.1017/S1755048314000522.

Annette Schnabel & Mikael Hjerm "How the Religious Cleavages of Civil Society Shape national Identity" Sage Open, 2014, DOI: 10.1177/2158244014525417.

Shawna A. Sweeney, "The Sacred and the Secular: Separation of Church (Mosque) and State & Implications for Women's Rights" International Journal of Gender and Women’s Studies, 2 (1), 2014, 1-35.


Ben Nun Bloom, Pazit, Gizem Arkian, & Udi Sommer "Globalization, Threat and Religious Freedom" Political Studies, 2013, doi: 10.1111/1467-9248.12060.

David T. Buckley & Luis F. Mantilla "God and Governance: Development, State Capacity, and the Regulation of Religion" Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 52 (2), 2013, 328-348.

Jonathan Fox "Is it Really God's Century? An Evaluation of Religious Support and Discrimination from 1990 to 2008" Politics & Religion. May 13, 2013, doi:10.1017/S1755048313000230.

Jonathan Fox & Yasemin Akbaba "Securitization of Islam and Religious Discrimination: Religious Minorities in Western Democracies, 1990 to 2008" Comparative European Politics. May 13, 2013, doi: 10.1057/cep.2013.8.

Jonathan Fox "Religious Discrimination against Religious Minorities in Middle Eastern Muslim States" Civil Wars,15 (4), 2013, 454-470.

Gaskins, Ben , Matt Golder, & David Siegel "Religious Participation and Economic Conservatism" American Journal of Political Science, 2013, DOI: 10.1111/ajps.12024.

Lerner, Hanna "Permissive Constitutions, Democracy, and Religious Freedom in India, Indonesia, Israel, and Turkey" World Politics, 65 (4), 2013, 609-655.

Ozgur Ozdamar & Yasemin Akbaba "Religious Discrimination and International Crises: International Effects of Domestic Inequality" Foreign Policy Analysis, 2013, doi: 10.1111/fpa.12016.

Fatima Z. Rahman "The Effects of State-Established Religion on Religious Freedom for Minorities" Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion, 9 (8) 2013, 1-24.

Udi Sommer, Pazit Ben-Nun Bloom, & Gizem Arkian "Does Faith Limit Morality: The Politics of Religion and Corruption" Democratization, 20 (2), 2013, 287-309.


Mark Farha, "Global Gradations of Secularism: The Consociational, Communal, and Social Paradigms" Comparative Sociology, 11 (3), 2012, 354-386.

Florian Grotsch & Anette Schnabel "Integration-What Integration? The Religious Framing of the European Integration Process between 1990 and 2000" European Societies 14 (4), 2012, 586-610.

Jonathan Fox "The Last Bastion of Secularization" Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 20 (2), 2012, 161-180.

Jonathan Fox "Separation of Religion and State in Stable Christian Democracies: Fact or Myth?" Journal of Law Religion and State, 1 (1), 2012, 60-94.

Jonathan Fox "State Religion and State Repression" in Chris Seiple, Dennis R. Hoover, and Pauletta Otis, eds., Routledge Handbook of Religion and Security, (London: Routledge, 2012), 182-192.

Peter S. Henne, "The Two Swords: Religion-State Connections and Interstate Disputes" Journal of Peace Research 49 (6), 2012, 153-768.

Ekrem Karakic & Birol Baskan "Religion in Politics: How Does Inequality Affect Public Secularization" Comparative Political Studies, 45 (12), 2012, 1510-1541.

Minkenberg, Michael "Christian Identity? European Churches and the Issue of Turkey's EU Membership" Comparative Politics, 10 (2), 2012, 149-179.

Müller, Tim & Anja Neundorf (2012): "The Role of the State in the Repression and Revival of Religiosity in Central Eastern Europe." Social Forces. First published online September 27, 2012, doi:10.1093/sf/sos142.

Gert Pickel "Secularization, Individualization or Market Approach? Results from the 'Church and Religion in an Enlarged Europe' Project" in Janos Wildmann (ed.) Religions and Churches in a Common Europe, Bremen, Germany: Europaeischer Hochschulverlag & Co., 2012.

Ryan J. Rebe "Re-examining the Wall of Separation: A Cross-National Study of Religious Pluralism and Democracy" Politics & Religion, 5 (3), 2012, 655-670.

Ani Sarkission "Religious Regulation and the Muslim Democracy Gap" Politics and Religion, 5 (3), 2012. 501-527.

Alfred Stepan "The Multiple Secularisms of Modern Democratic and Non-Democratic Regimes" in Calhoun, Craig Mark Juergensmeyer, & Jonathan VanAntwerpwn eds. Rethinking Secularism, New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2012, 125-155.


Yasemin Akbaba & Jonathan Fox "The Religion and State Minorities Dataset" Journal of Peace Research, 48 (6), 2011, 807-816.

Yasemin Akbaba & Jonathan Fox "Religious Discrimination against Muslim Minorities in Christian Majority Countries: A Unique Case?" Politics, Religion, & Ideology, 12 (4), 2011, 449-470.

Matthias Basedau, Georg Struver, Johannes Vullers & Tim Wegenast "Do Religious Factors Impact Armed Conflict? Empirical Evidence From Sub-Saharan Africa" Terrorism and Political Violence, 23 (5), , 2011, 752-779.

Robert Brathwaite & Andrew Bramsen "Reconceptualizing Church and State: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of the Separation of Religion and State on Democracy" Politics & Religion, 4 (2), 2011, 229-263.

Nate Breznau, Valerie A. Lykes, Jonathan Kelly, & M.D.R. Evans "A Clash of Civilizations? Preferences for Religious Political Leaders on 86 Nations" Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 50 (4), 2011, 671-691.

Jonathan Fox "Building Composite Measures of Religion and State" Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion, 7 (8), 2011, 1-39.

Jonathan Fox "Out of Sync: The Disconnect Between Constitutional Clauses and State Legislation on Religion" Canadian Journal of Political Science, 44(1), 2011, 59-81.

Jonathan Fox "Separation of Religion and State and Secularism in Theory and in Practice" Religion State & Society, 39 (4), 2011, 384-401.

Jonathan Fox & Nukhet Sandal "State Religious Exclusivity and International Crises between 1990 and 2002" in Patrick James ed. Religion, Identity and Global Governance: Theory, Evidence, and Practice, (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2011), 81-107.

Kuhle, Lene "Concluding Remarks on Religion and State in the Nordic Countries" Nordic Journal of Religion and Society, 24 (2), 2011, 205-213.

Müller, Olaf. "Secularization, Individualization, or (Re)vitalization? The State and Development of Churchliness and Religiosity in Post-Communist Central and Eastern Europe". Religion and Society in Central and Eastern Europe 4 (1), 2011, 21-37.

Oliver Sampson, Lyubomyr Havryluk, Richard Traunmuller, & Ernrico Bertini "Visual Analytics meets Political Science: Visualizing Patterns and Changes in States' Policies Toward Religion" 2011 Discovery Exhibition,

Ani Sarkissian, Jonathan Fox, & Yasemin Akbaba "Culture vs. Rational Choice: Assessing the Causes of Religious Discrimination in Muslim States" Nationalism & Ethnic Politics, 17 (4), 2011, 423-446.

Fredrick Solt, Philip Habel, and J. Tobin Grant "Economic Inequality, Relative Power, and Religiosity" Social Science Quarterly, 92 (2), 2011, 447-465.

Isabelle Stadelmann-Steffen and Richard Traunmüller "Der religiöse Faktor in der Familienpolitik. Ein empirischer Test klassischer und neuerer Ansätze im Vergleich von 27 OECD-Ländern" [The Religious Factor in Family Policy. An Empirical Test of Classic and New Approaches in a Comparison of 27 OECD Countries] Zeitschrift für Sozialreform/Journal of Social Policy Research, 57 (4), 2011 383-408.

Richard Traunmuller & M. Freitag, "State Support of Religion: Making or Breaking Faith-Based Social Capital?" Comparative Politics 43(3), 2011, 253-269.

Richard Traunmuller, "Zur Messung von Staat-Kirche-Beziehungen. Eine vergleichende Analyse neuerer Indizes" [Measuring Church-State-Relations. A Comparison of New Indices] Zeitschrift fur Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft, 2011.

Sinisa Zrinscak. "Church State and Society in Post-Communist Europe" in Jack Barbalet, Adam Possami, and Bryan S. Turner, Religion and the State: A Comparative Sociology, London, UK: Anthem Press, 2011.


Robert Barro, Jason Hwang, & Rachel McCleary "Religious Conversion in 40 Countries" Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 49 (1), 2010, 15-36.

Feryal M. Cherif. "Culture, Rights, and Norms: Women's Rights Reform in Muslim Countries" Journal of Politics, 72 (4), 2010, 1144-1160. doi:10.1017/S0022381610000587

Michael D. P. Driessen. "Religion. State and Democracy: Analyzing Two Dimensions of Church-State Arrangements" Politics and Religion, 3 (1), 2010, 55-80.

Jonathan Fox "The Future of Civilization and State Religion Policy" Futures, 2010 doi:10.1016/j.futures.2010.01.003

Jonathan Fox "Muslim Hypocrisy: On the Violation of Religious Freedoms" BESA Center Perspectives Paper No. 120, November 14, 2010,

Daniel P.S. Goh "State and Social Christianity in Post-colonial Singapore" Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia, 25 (1), 2010, 54-89.

William F.S. Miles "Israel's Religious Vote in Comparative Perspective: An Africanist Analysis" Israel Affairs, 16 (1), 2010, 179-200.

Ani Sarkissian "Religious Reestablishment in Post-Communist Polities" Journal of Church and State, 51 (3), 2010, 472-501; doi:10.1093/jcs/csp096

Kwon Seok-Woo & Pia Arenius "Nations of Entrepreneurs: A Social Capital Perspective" Journal of Business Venturing. 25 (3), 2010, 315-330.

Richard Traunmuller "Segen oder Fluch? Zum Einfluss von Staat-Kirche-Beziehungen auf die Vitalitat religioser Zivilgesellschaften im europaischen Vergleich" [Blessing or Curse? The Impact of Church-State-Relations on the Vitality of Religious Civil Societies in European Comparison] In: Antonius Liedhegener & Ines-Jacqueline Werkner (eds.) Religion zwischen Zivilgesellschaft und politischem System. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag, 2010, 138-161.


Jonathan Fox "Quantifying Religion and State: Round Two of the Religion and State Project" Politics and Religion.

Metin Cosgel & Thomas J. Miceli "State and Religion" Journal of Comparative Economics, 37 (2), 2009, 402-416.

Jonathan Fox & Deborah Flores "Religions, Constitutions, and the State: a Cross-National Study" Journal of Politics, 71 (4), 2009, 1499-1513.

Jonathan Fox, Patrick James, & Yitan Li. "State Religion and Discrimination Against Ethnic Minorities" Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, 15 (2), 2009, 189-210.

John Madeley "Unequally yoked: the antinomies of Church-State separation in Europe and the USA." European Political Science, 8 (3), 2009, 273-288.

John Madeley "Religion and the State" in Jeffrey Haynes, ed. Routledge Handbook of Religion and Politics, New York: Routledge, 2009, 174-191

Michael Minkenberg, "Religion and Euroscepticism: Cleavages, Religious Parties and Churches in EU Member States," West European Politics, 32 (6), 2009. 1190-1211.

Tim Muller, "Religiosity and Attitudes towards the Involvement of Religious Leaders in Politics: A Multilevel-Analysis of 55 societies." World Values Research ,2 (1), 2009, 1-29.

Gert Pickel "Secularization as and European Fate? Results from the Church and Religion in Enlarged Europe Project 2006" in Gert Pickel and Olaf Muller eds Church and Religion in Contemporary Europe: Results form Empirical and Comparative Research, Wiesbaden, Germany: VS Verlag fur Sozialwissenschaften, 2009. pp. 89-122.

Detlef Pollack and Gert Pickel "Church-State Relations and the Vitality of Religion in European Comparison" in Gert Pickel and Olaf Muller eds Church and Religion in Contemporary Europe: Results form Empirical and Comparative Research, Wiesbaden, Germany: VS Verlag fur Sozialwissenschaften, 2009. pp. 145-166


Jonathan Fox "State Religious Exclusivity and Human Rights" Political Studies, 56 (4), 2008, 928-948.

Jonathan Fox & Jonathan Rynhold "A Jewish and Democratic State? Comparing Government Involvement in Religion in Israel with other Democracies" Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, 9 (4), 2008, 507-531.

Jonathan Fox & Ephraim Tabory "Contemporary Evidence Regarding the Impact of State Regulation of Religion on Religious Participation and Belief" Sociology of Religion, 69 (3), 2008, 245-271.

John Madeley "America's secular state and the unsecular state of Europe" in: Fatton, Robert and Ramazani, Rouhollah K., (eds.) Religion, state, and society: Jefferson's wall of separation in comparative perspective, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

Lauren E. Pinkus & Katherine Meyer "Religious Noncoercive and Coercive Regulations: A New Typology for Cross-National Research"International Journal of Sociology, 38 (3), 2008, 82-107.


Jonathan Fox, "Do Democracies Have Separation of Religion and State?" Canadian Journal of Political Science, 40 (01), 2007, 1-25.

Jonathan Fox "Religious Discrimination: A World Survey" Journal of International Affairs, 61 (1), 2007, 47-68.


Jonathan Fox "World Separation of Religion and State into the Twenty First Century" Comparative Political Studies, 39 (5), 2006, 537-569 .

Kenneth Scheve & David Stasavage "Religion and Preferences for Social Insurance" Quarterly Journal of Political Science, 1 (3), 2006, 255-286.


Robert J. Barro & Rachel M. McCleary "Which countries have state religions?" Quarterly Journal of Economics, 120 (4), 2005, 1331-1370.

Jonathan Fox & Shmuel Sandler "Separation of Religion and State in the 21st Century: Comparing the Middle East and Western Democracies" Comparative Politics, 37 (3), 2005, 317-335.


Jonathan Fox & Shmuel Sandler "Quantifying Religion: Toward Building More Effective Ways of Measuring Religious Influence on State-Level Behavior" Journal of Church and State, 45 (3), 2003,559-588.

Dissertations & Theses


Paal Wanvik Hole "Faith and Flows: An Empirical Study on the Effects of Religious Discrimination on Trade" MA Thesis, Department of Philosophy in Economics, University of Oslo, November, 2018.


Allison R. Hale "International Policy Diffusion and Religious Freedom, 1990-2008" MA Thesis, Utah State University, 2017.


Einav Hajjaj "Does Women's Status Correlate with State-Religion Relations?" (in Hebrew), Department of Political Studies, Bar Ilan University, (Ph.D.) 2009.

Tyra Murielle Bouhamden "Religion and the Law of Human Rights of Women in the Middle East: A Quantitative Analysis" Georgia State University, (M.A.) 2009.


Brian N. Hewlett "Spiritual but not Religious Being in a Religious World: Exploring Structural Antecedents for the pairing of Spiritual and Non-Religious Identities across National Boundaries", Department of Sociology, University of Arizona, (Ph.D.) 2007.


Yasemin Akbaba, "Understanding Ethnoreligious Conflict: The State, Discrimination, and International Politics", University of Missouri, (Ph.D.) 2006.

Carolyn Sam "Does a Government's Attitude and Policy Toward Religion Affect Religiosity?" Department of Political Science, University of California, San Diego, (Senior Honors) 2006.

Sonia Wong "Of Religious Freedom and Economic Well-Being", University College, London, (Masters) 2006.


Ragnhild Nordas, "Religious States and Violent Intrastate Conflict - A Quantitative Analysis", Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO), (Masters) 2003.

Keep Updated
The RAS project sends periodic e-mail notices of publications and updates of the dataset. To be added to the mailing list please contact Jonathan Fox

The following tools and resources are provided by theARDA.
National Profiles
TheARDA's National Profiles includes data on religious adherents, religious freedoms, demographics, and other social measures for most nations of the world and by region.

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