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Included Nations/Regions: Spain [x], The World [x]


Religion and State (RAS) Indexes1

Religion Indexes (Spain)

State Funding of Religion
Summary categories: None (0/3), Low (1/3), Medium (2/3), High (3/3)

Ranking: 46/253
Societal Discrimination of Minority Religions
Summary categories: None (0/3), Low (1/3), Medium (2/3), High (3/3)

Ranking: 73/253
State Regulation of Majority or All Religions
Summary categories: None (0/3), Low (1/3), Medium (2/3), High (3/3)

Ranking: 145/253
State Discrimination of Minority Religions
Summary categories: None (0/3), Low (1/3), Medium (2/3), High (3/3)

Ranking: 84/253
For details on how these indexes were constructed, click here

Spain: Major World Religions (1900 - 2050) (World Religion Database, 2020)2

The following groups with less than 1% of the population were hidden from this graph: Baha'is, Buddhists, Chinese folk-religionists, Hindus, Jews, Sikhs.


Spain: Largest Religious Groups (1900 - 2050) (World Religion Database, 2020)2

The following groups with less than 1% of the population were hidden from this graph: doubly-affiliated, Islamic schismatics, Mahayanists, Protestants, Saktists, Shaivites, Shias, unaffiliated Christians, Vaishnavites.


Religious Adherents (World Religion Database 2020)2

Religion Spain
[x]
The World
[x]
Baha'is 0.03% 0.11%
Buddhists 0.03% 6.83%
--Mahayanists 0.03% 4.89%
--Theravadins --- 1.72%
--Lamaists --- 0.23%
Chinese folk-religionists 0.05% 5.98%
Christians 86.68% 32.16%
--unaffiliated Christians 0.41% 1.46%
--Orthodox 1.71% 3.75%
--Catholics 83.78% 15.90%
--Protestants 0.27% 7.51%
--Independents 1.22% 5.00%
Daoists --- 0.11%
Confucianists --- 0.11%
Ethnic religionists --- 3.65%
Hindus 0.06% 13.58%
--Vaishnavites 0.01% 5.15%
--Shaivites 0.02% 4.86%
--Saktists 0.02% 3.57%
Jains --- 0.08%
Jews 0.11% 0.19%
Muslims 2.76% 24.20%
--Sunnis 2.70% 21.56%
--Shias 0.05% 2.44%
--Islamic schismatics 0.01% 0.21%
New religionists --- 0.85%
Shintoists --- 0.04%
Sikhs 0.01% 0.34%
Spiritists --- 0.19%
Zoroastrians --- 0.00%
Non-Religious 10.27% 11.57%
--Agnostics 8.76% 9.65%
--Atheists 1.51% 1.92%

Religious demographics (Spain)3

The country has an area of 194,897 square miles and a population of 45,200,000.

The law prohibits the collection of census data based on religious belief, which limits the ability to compile statistical data on the number of adherents of religious groups. The Center for Sociological Investigation (CIS), an independent government agency, periodically collects survey data on religious trends. A February 2008 CIS survey reported that 75.6 percent of respondents considered themselves Catholic; however, 53.1 percent of those persons stated that they almost never attend Mass. Religious groups that constitute less than 10 percent of the population include all Protestant and evangelical denominations, Islam, Judaism, Jehovah's Witnesses, Buddhism, Hinduism, Eastern Orthodox, Baha'ism, Christian Scientists, Adventists, and Mormons.

The Episcopal Conference of Spain estimates there are 35 million Catholics in the country. The Federation of Evangelical Religious Entities (FEREDE) estimates there are 1.2 million evangelical Christians and other Protestants, 800,000 of whom are immigrants or live in the country at least 6 months of the year. A December 2007 study by Observatorio Andalusí, an institute associated with the Union of Islamic Communities in Spain (UCIDE), estimates that there are 1.15 million Muslims. The Federation of Jewish Communities estimates that there are 48,000 Jews.

The Observatorio Andalusí calculated that although there are converts to Islam, more than two-thirds of Muslims are immigrants without Spanish nationality. Most are recent immigrants from Morocco, but there are also Algerians, Pakistanis, and immigrants from other Arab or Islamic countries. As of the end of 2007, the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs reported that Moroccans are the largest legal immigrant population, numbering over 600,000. The largest concentrations of Muslims are in the regions of Catalonia, Madrid, Valencia, Andalucia, and the Spanish North African enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla.

The Ministry of Justice's (MOJ) Office of Religious Affairs noted that a small number of Christians emigrated from countries such as Egypt and Lebanon. The country also has received a large influx of immigrants from Latin America, many of them Catholics. Most Orthodox Christians are from Eastern European countries such as Romania, Bulgaria, and Ukraine. Evangelical Protestant immigrants typically come from African and Latin American countries, according to government officials.

As of April 29, 2008, the MOJ's Register of Religious Entities includes 12,418 entities affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church. There are 2,057 non-Catholic entities and 3,583 non-Catholic places of worship registered. These included 1,337 Protestant or evangelical church entities and 2,413 Protestant or evangelical places of worship; 13 Orthodox entities and 25 Orthodox places of worship; 2 Jehovah's Witnesses entities and 773 places of worship; 1 Mormon entity with 120 places of worship; 1 Unification Church; 20 entities of Judaism with 22 places of worship; 563 Islamic entities with 160 places of worship; 11 entities of the Baha'i Faith with 12 places of worship; 5 entities of Hinduism; 32 entities of Buddhism with 32 places of worship; and 4 Christian Scientist entities.

The number of non-Catholic churches and religious communities may be much larger than indicated in the above list. Some religious groups choose to register as cultural organizations with regional governments rather than with the National Registry of Religious Entities in Madrid because the national registration process requires more paperwork and can take up to 6 months.


Spain - Google Map


Religion and the State

Religion and State Collection (2014)

Spain
[x]
Is proselytizing Legal?1 Yes
Is religious registration someties denied?1 There is no registration requirement
What are the consequences of registration?1 Groups need not register but registration is allowed or encouraged. This encouragement may include benefits given only to registered religions.
Official Support: The formal relationship between religion and state.1 Multi-Tiered Preferences 1
The extent to which religious education is mandatory in public schools.1 Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
The extent to which funding is exclusive to one or a few religions.1 Government funding of religion goes primarily to one religion but at least some other religions receive some funds.
The extent to which there are religious requirements and oaths for holding office.1 The oath of office for some or all officials contains mention of God or religion in general but that part is optional.

Constitutional Features [ View Excerpts]

Constitution

Spain
[x]
Constitution Year10 1978
Last Amended10 2011
Source10 Constitute Project
Translation10 Source is an English translation.
Current as of10 July 21, 2018

Public Opinion (Spain)

(Calculated by the ARDA from the World Values Survey)11
1981 1990 1995 1999 2000 2005 2011
Religious Affiliation/Identification
Percent belonging to a religious denomination. 91.1 85.7 86.2 82 84.1 --- 76.3
Percent identifying as a religious person. 65.5 67.8 69.1 59 63.8 45.5 41
Percent raised religious. --- 92.2 90.4 --- --- --- ---
Religious Behaviors
Percent attending religious services at least once a month. 53.6 40.9 37.6 36 36.1 22.5 19.5
Percent praying to God more than once per week. --- --- --- 34 31.3 --- 20.8
Percent that meditate or pray. 72.1 62 --- 63.7 46.4 33.6 ---
Percent attending religious services at least once a month when 12 years old. --- --- --- 70.8 --- --- ---
Percent that changed denominations. --- --- --- 11.1 --- --- ---
Percent active in a church or religious organization. --- --- 17.2 --- --- 9.1 6.6
Religious Beliefs
Percent believing in God. 91.9 85.9 90.9 86.7 82.9 --- 75.9
Percent believing in heaven. 56.6 53.4 60.4 50.8 50.8 --- ---
Percent believing in hell. 39.3 30.4 37.2 32.9 40.1 --- 35.8
Percent believing in life after death. 67.7 51.7 65.8 49.9 56.1 --- ---
Percent believing that there are clear guidelines on good and evil. 25.7 30.7 42 34.2 43.7 --- ---
Percent believing that politicians who do not believe in God are unfit for public office. --- --- --- 9.5 11.4 11.3 ---
Percent believing that religious leaders should not influence people's vote. --- --- --- 70.9 62.4 74.3 ---
Percent believing that things would be better if there are more people with strong religious beliefs. --- --- --- 16.4 11.4 12.8 ---
Percent that think that religious faith is an important quality in children --- --- --- --- --- 11.3 10.6
Percent that agree: We depend too much on science and not enough on faith --- --- --- --- --- 61.4 31.2
Percent believing church gives answers to people's spiritual needs. 55.2 57.6 --- 58.1 51.1 45.7 ---
Percent that do not trust people of other religions --- --- --- --- --- 52.8 49.4
Percent believing church gives answers on family life problems. 41.3 44.3 --- 35.1 38.3 27.8 ---
Percent believing churches give answers to moral problems. 47.4 44.2 --- 39.9 40.9 35.2 ---
Percent that often think about meaning and purpose of life --- --- --- --- --- 16.2 20.4
Percent believing churches give answers to social problems. --- 34.8 --- 28.9 32.7 24.3 ---
Percent believing that religious leaders should influence the government. --- --- --- 7.5 16.7 72.3 ---
Percent believing that people have a soul. 73.7 67.6 79 --- 71.7 --- ---
Percent believing in the concept of sin. 65.1 59.6 64.5 51.2 --- --- ---
Percent believing religious services are important for deaths. --- 77.3 --- 80.1 --- --- ---
Percent believing religious services are important for births. --- 76.5 --- 77.8 --- --- ---
Percent believing religious services are important for marriages. --- 75.9 --- 75.3 --- --- ---
Percent believing in a personal God. 57.3 50.6 --- 49.1 --- --- ---
Percent believing in telepathy. --- --- --- 26.7 --- --- ---
Percent believing in re-incarnation. 32.9 26.8 --- 20.1 --- --- ---
Percent believing in the devil's existence. 38.7 31.8 41.3 --- --- --- ---
Percent that think that it is more important to follow religious norms and ceremonies than to do good for other people --- --- --- --- --- --- 10.3
Percent that think the meaning of religion is to make sense of life in this world --- --- --- --- --- --- 81.4
Percent that agree that whenever science and religion conflict, religion is always right --- --- --- --- --- --- 69.4
Percent that agree that the "only acceptable religion is my religion." --- --- --- --- --- --- 24.8
Percent that agree that all religions should be taught in public schools --- --- --- --- --- --- 35.3
Percent that agree, "People who belong to different religions are probably just as moral as those who belong to mine." --- --- --- --- --- --- 77.7
Percent that agree, "One of the bad effects of science is that it breaks down people’s ideas of right and wrong." --- --- --- --- --- --- 21
Religious Experiences
Percent finding comfort and strength from religion. 63 57.4 62.2 54.4 54.2 --- ---
Percent saying that they have a lucky charm. --- --- --- 11 --- --- ---
Percent considering that a lucky charm definitely does not provide protection. --- --- --- 55.7 --- --- ---
Attitudes
Percent considering religion important. --- 52.9 58 42.1 49.5 39.1 32.3
Percent considering that God is not at all important in their life. 7.3 10.7 6.9 11.6 13.1 18.1 19.5
Percent confident in religious organizations. 50.8 49.7 49 41.8 42.3 32.4 27.8
Politics
Percent thinking that churches have an influence on national politics. --- --- --- --- --- --- 18.8

Socio-Economic Measures

Military Measures

Spain
[x]
The World
[x]
Composite Index of National Capability, in fraction of 118 0.0081208 0.005162584
2012 Military expenditure (% of GDP)5 1.0 --

Other Measures on Religion, State, and Society


Constitution Clauses Related to Religion


Constitution Excerpts (clauses that reference religion) (Spain)10

Section 14.

Spaniards are equal before the law and may not in any way be discriminated against on account of ... religion ...

Section 16.

(1) Freedom of ideology, religion and worship of individuals and communities is guaranteed, with no other restriction on their expression than may be necessary to maintain public order as protected by law.

(2) No one may be compelled to make statements regarding his or her ideology, religion or beliefs.

(3) No religion shall have a state character. The public authorities shall take into account the religious beliefs of Spanish society and shall consequently maintain appropriate cooperation relations with the Catholic Church and other confessions.

Section 27.

...

(3) The public authorities guarantee the right of parents to ensure that their children receive religious and moral instruction in accordance with their own convictions.

...

Variable Details

  • For more details on State Funding of Religion (FUN_4CAT) see this document.
  • For more details on Societal Discrimination of Minority Religions (SOC_4CAT) see this document.
  • For more details on State Regulation of Majority or All Religions (NXX_4CAT) see this document.
  • For more details on State Discrimination of Minority Religions (MXX_4CAT) see this document.
  • Sources

    1 The Religion and State (RAS) Project is a university-based project located at Bar Ilan University in Ramat Gan, Israel and is directed by Jonathan Fox. Round 3 of the RAS includes all countries with populations of 250,000 or more as well as a sampling of smaller states and offers annual measures from 1990 to 2014. The methods used for conducting the RAS3 collection and the complete codebook can be reviewed online. Or, the codebook and data file can be downloaded free of charge here. For details on how the RAS indexes reported on the ARDA’s National Profiles were coded, constructed, and placed into categories, click here.

    2 Todd M. Johnson and Brian J. Grim, eds. World Religion Database (Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2022).

    3 The U.S. State Department's International Religious Freedom Report is submitted to Congress annually by the Department of State in compliance with Section 102(b) of the International Religious Freedom Act (IRFA) of 1998. This report supplements the most recent Human Rights Reports by providing additional detailed information with respect to matters involving international religious freedom. It includes individual country chapters on the status of religious freedom worldwide. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. These State Department reports are open source.

    4 The Religious Characteristics of States Dataset Project: Demographics reports the estimates of religious demographics, both country by country and region by region. The RCS was created to fulfill the unmet need for a dataset on the religious dimensions of countries of the world, with the state-year as the unit of observation. It estimates populations and percentages of adherents of 100 religious denominations including second level subdivision within Christianity and Islam. The RCS Data Project would like to acknowledge, recognize, and express our deepest gratitude for the significant contributions of Todd M. Johnson the co-principal investigator of the World Religion Database.

    5 Relying on agencies from each country, as well as a synthesis of data from United Nations divisions, Eurostate Demographic statistics, the U.S. Census international database, and its own data collection, the World Bank's Open Data site offers free and open access to data about development in countries around the globe.

    6 The Center for Systemic Peace (CSP) is engaged in innovative research on the problem of political violence within the structural context of the dynamic global system. The Center supports scientific research and quantitative analysis in many issue areas related to the fundamental problems of violence in both human relations and societal-systemic development processes. The Center continually monitors political behavior in each of the world's major states and reports on emerging issues and persisting conditions related to the problems of political violence and "state failure." A dataset with these and other international measures can be downloaded from here. Used with permission. *Note: Polity Scores range from -10 to 10 and include the following categories: -10 to -9: strongly autocratic, -8 to -7 autocratic, -6 to -4 weakly autocratic, -3 to +3 anocratic, +4 to +6 weakly democratic, +7 to +8 democratic, +9 to +10 strongly democratic.

    7 Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) is a new approach to conceptualizing and measuring democracy. V-Dem provides a multidimensional and disaggregated dataset that reflects the complexity of the concept of democracy as a system of rule that goes beyond simple presence of elections. The V-Dem project distinguishes between seven high-level principles of democracy: electoral, liberal, participatory, deliberative, egalitarian, majoritarian, and consensual, and collects data to measure these principles. A dataset with these and other international measures can be downloaded from here. Used with permission.

    8 The Religious Characteristics of States Dataset Project: Government Religious Preference (GRP) measures government-level favoritism toward, and disfavor against, 30 religious denominations. A series of ordered categorical variables index the state's institutional favoritism in 28 different ways. The variables are combined to form five composite indices for five broad components of state-religion: official status, religious education, financial support, regulatory burdens, and freedom of practice. The five components' composites in turn are further combined into a single composite score, the GRP score. The RCS Data Project would like to acknowledge, recognize, and express our deepest gratitude for the significant contributions of Todd M. Johnson, the principal investigator of the World Christian Database, the co-principal investigator of the World Religion Database, and co-author of the World Christian Encyclopedia series.

    9 Data under the "Features of Constitution" heading are drawn from coding of the U.S. State Department's 2008 International Religious Freedom Reports conducted by researchers at the Association of Religion Data Archives. The article by Brian Grim and Roger Finke describes the coding of the International Religious Freedom reports. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. Used with permission.

    10 Text from country constitutions was copied from primary documents obtained online using a variety of sources, including the Constitute Project, World Constitutions Illustrated, and government sources. When the text was in a language other than English, it was translated to English by ARDA staff or with web-based translation utilities such as Google Translate. Emphases were added to the text by ARDA staff to differentiate religious content from non-religious content. Text is current to the date listed in the "Current as of" field shown above. Please contact us at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. if you are aware of any incorrect information provided on this page.

    11 The World Values Survey is a worldwide investigation of socio-cultural and political change. It is conducted by a network of social scientists at leading universities around the world. Interviews have been carried out with nationally representative samples of the publics of more than 80 societies. A total of four waves have been carried out since 1981. The ARDA has averaged the weighted responses across the waves for each country surveyed. The average responses for all countries have been placed in a single file and can be previewed and downloaded here. See the World Values Survey website for further information and to download the original survey data: http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/.

    12 Freedom House is an independent non-governmental organization that offers measures of the extent to which governments are accountable to their own people; the rule of law prevails; and freedoms of expression, association, belief and respect for the rights of minorities and women are guaranteed. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. Used with permission.

    13 The CIA's World Factbook was created as an annual summary and update to the now defunct National Intelligence Survey (NIS) studies. The first classified Factbook was published in August 1962, and the first unclassified version was published in June 1971. The NIS program was terminated in 1973 except for the Factbook, map, and gazetteer components. The 1975 Factbook was the first to be made available to the public with sales through the US Government Printing Office (GPO). The year 2010 marks the 67th year of the World Factbook and its predecessor programs. The maps and flags are also from the World Factbook, which is an open source.

    14 Relying on agencies from each country, as well as a synthesis of data from United Nations divisions, Eurostate Demographic statistics, the U.S. Census international database, and its own data collection, the World Bank's Open Data site offers free and open access to data about development in countries around the globe.

    15 The Heritage Foundation/Wall Street Journal Index of Economic Freedom is a systematic, empirical measurement of economic freedom in countries throughout the world. A set of objective economic criteria are used to study and grade various countries for the annual publication of the Index of Economic Freedom. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. Used with permission.

    16 The United Nations Human Development Reports provide data and statistical analysis in various areas of human development. The Human Development Report (HDR) presents two types of statistics: the human development indicator tables, which provide a global assessment of country achievements in different areas of human development, and thematic statistical analysis. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. Used with permission.

    17 The 2013 Gender Inequality Index is a composite measure reflecting inequality in achievements between women and men in three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and the labor market. It varies between zero (when women and men fare equally) and one (when men or women fare poorly compared to the other in all dimensions). The health dimension is measured by two indicators: maternal mortality ratio and the adolescent fertility rate. The empowerment dimension is also measured by two indicators: the share of parliamentary seats held by each sex and by secondary and higher education attainment levels. The labor dimension is measured by women’s participation in the work force. Source: The United Nations Human Development Reports provide data and statistical analysis in various areas of human development. The Human Development Report (HDR) presents two types of statistics: the human development indicator tables, which provide a global assessment of country achievements in different areas of human development, and thematic statistical analysis. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. Used with permission.

    18 Military data is drawn from the National Material Capabilities (v4.0) dataset, which is a component of and hosted by the Correlates of War Project. The Correlates of War Project seeks to facilitate the collection, dissemination, and use of accurate and reliable quantitative data in international relations. Correlates of War data may be accessed through the above link. Used with permission.

    19 The article by Brian Grim and Roger Finke describes the coding of the U.S. State Department's International Religious Freedom reports. The 2003, 2005, and 2008 reports were coded by researchers at the Association of Religion Data Archives. The GRI, GFI and SRI values reported on the National Profiles are averages from the 2003, 2005, and 2008 International Religious Freedom reports, while the Religious Persecution measure is an average from the 2005 and 2008 reports. All other measures derived from the International Religious Freedom reports were coded from the reports 2008. A data file with all of the 2008 coding, as well as data files with other cross national collections are available for preview and download from the data archive on this site. Used with permission.

    20 The Cingranelli-Richards (CIRI) Human Rights Dataset contains standards-based quantitative information on government respect for 15 internationally recognized human rights for 202 countries, annually from 1981-2011. It is designed for use by scholars and students who seek to test theories about the causes and consequences of human rights violations, as well as policy makers and analysts who seek to estimate the human rights effects of a wide variety of institutional changes and public policies including democratization, economic aid, military aid, structural adjustment, and humanitarian intervention. The full CIRI Human Rights Dataset can be accessed through the above link. Used with permission.

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