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Included Nations/Regions: Northern Cyprus [x], Western Asia [x], The World [x]



Religious demographics (Northern Cyprus)1

Prior to 1974, the country [of Cyprus] experienced a long period of strife between its Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities. In response, the UN Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) began peacekeeping operations in 1964. The island has been divided de facto since the Turkish military intervention of 1974, following a coup d'etat directed from Greece. The southern part of the island is under the control of the Government of the Republic of Cyprus, while the northern part is administered by Turkish Cypriots. In 1983 their administration proclaimed itself the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" ("TRNC"). The United States does not recognize the "TRNC," nor does any other country except Turkey. A buffer zone, or "green line," patrolled by UNFICYP, separates the two parts. In 2003 Turkish Cypriot authorities relaxed many restrictions on movement between the two communities, including abolishing all crossing fees. The new procedures led to relatively unimpeded contact between the communities and permitted Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots to visit religious sites located in the other community; however, citizens, as well as foreigners, must show identification at the buffer zone crossing points to go from one side to the other.

Summary Information

Northern Cyprus
[x]
Western Asia
[x]
The World
[x]
Region Western Asia The World --
Total Population2 285,158 262,021,707 7,335,774,068
Area in square miles -- 1,865,418 196,939,900
Life Expectancy from birth, in years3 -- 74.9 71.9
Gross National Income per capita, in current international dollars3 -- 23,220.8 16,101.0
Description of Polity Score4 -- -- --
Judicial Independence Composite Score, as average of scores for higher and lower courts5 -- -- 0.8
Official Religion(s)6 Sunni Islam -- --

Northern Cyprus - Google Map


Religion and the State

Religion and State Collection (2014)

Northern Cyprus
[x]
Is proselytizing Legal?7 Yes
Is religious registration someties denied?7 There is no registration requirement
What are the consequences of registration?7 Groups need not register but registration is allowed or encouraged. This encouragement may include benefits given only to registered religions.
Official Support: The formal relationship between religion and state.7 Preferred Religion
The extent to which religious education is mandatory in public schools.7 None
The extent to which funding is exclusive to one or a few religions.7 Government funding of religion goes to only one religion, no other religions receive funds.
The extent to which there are religious requirements and oaths for holding office.7 There are no religious requirements or oaths necessary in order to hold office.

Constitutional Features [ View Excerpts]

Constitution

Northern Cyprus
[x]
Constitution Year9 1985
Last Amended9 (n/a)
Source9 Cypnet
Translation9 Source is an English translation, edited by ARDA staff.
Current as of9 July 28, 2018

Socio-Economic Measures

Military Measures

Northern Cyprus
[x]
Western Asia
[x]
The World
[x]
Composite Index of National Capability, in fraction of 116 -- 0.003493871 0.005162584
2012 Military expenditure (% of GDP)3 -- 4.1 --

Other Measures on Religion, State, and Society


Constitution Clauses Related to Religion


Constitution Excerpts (clauses that reference religion) (Northern Cyprus)9

Article 23. Freedom of Conscience and Religion

(1) Every individual has freedom of conscience, religious faith and opinion.

(2) Forms of worship and religious ceremonies and rites are free provided they do not contravene public order or public morals or the laws enacted for these purposes.

(3) No person shall be compelled to worship; to participate in religious ceremonies and rites or to reveal his religious faith or belief; and no person shall be reproached for his religious faith or belief.

(4) Religious education and teaching is carried out under the supervision and control of the State.

(5) No person shall exploit or abuse, in any manner whatsoever, religion or religious feelings or things considered sacred by religion for the purpose of founding, even though partially, the basic social, economic, political or legal order of the State on religious precepts or for the purpose of securing political or personal advantage or influence. In the case of real or legal persons violating this prohibition or inducing others to do so, the provisions of the relevant law shall be applied and political parties shall be permanently closed down by the Supreme Court sitting as the Constitutional Court.

Article 42. Acquisitions, Requisitions and Restrictions connected with Vakf Properties.

(1) Matters relating to the acquisition and requisition of Vakf properties shall be regulated by law in accordance with the Basic Principles of Evkaf (Ahkâ mul Evkaf). Provisions relating to the restrictions and limitations which shall be imposed on Vakf properties for purposes of town and country planning, shall also be specified in such law

(2) In cases where any act of limitation or restriction is involved, the court may order stay of proceedings in respect thereof.

Article 124. Declaration of State of Emergency due to Acts of God and Serious Economic Crisis.

The Council of Ministers meeting under the chairmanship of the President of the Republic may, in cases of acts of God, dangerous infectious diseases or serious economic crisis, declare a state of emergency, in one or more areas or in the whole of the country for a period not exceeding three months.

Article 130. Broadcasting, Television and News Agencies.

...

(3) The principles of compliance with the requirements of a ... secular ... State ...

...

Article 131. Vakf Organization and the Office of Religious Affairs

(1) The institution of Vakf and the Fundamental Evcaf Rules (Ahkâmul Evkaf) are recognised by this Constitution.

(2) All matters relating to or in any way affecting the institution or foundation of Vakf or any Vakf properties, including properties belonging to mosques and any other Moslem Religious institutions, shall be subject exclusively to the Fundamental Evcaf Rules (Ahkâmül Evkaf); the legislation in force and the laws to be enacted by the Assembly of the Republic after the coming into force of this Constitution.

(3) Vakfs, the income of which belongs to the Evkaf Administration, shall be exempted from any form of taxation.

(4) The establishment and functioning of the Vakfs Organisation and the Religious Affairs Office shall be regulated by law and they shall carry out the duties prescribed by law.

(5) The State shall help the Evkaf in the execution of religious services·and in meeting the expenses of such services.

Sources

1 The U.S. State Department's International Religious Freedom Report is submitted to Congress annually by the Department of State in compliance with Section 102(b) of the International Religious Freedom Act (IRFA) of 1998. This report supplements the most recent Human Rights Reports by providing additional detailed information with respect to matters involving international religious freedom. It includes individual country chapters on the status of religious freedom worldwide. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. These State Department reports are open source.

2 The Religious Characteristics of States Dataset Project: Demographics reports the estimates of religious demographics, both country by country and region by region. The RCS was created to fulfill the unmet need for a dataset on the religious dimensions of countries of the world, with the state-year as the unit of observation. It estimates populations and percentages of adherents of 100 religious denominations including second level subdivision within Christianity and Islam. The RCS Data Project would like to acknowledge, recognize, and express our deepest gratitude for the significant contributions of Todd M. Johnson the co-principal investigator of the World Religion Database.

3 Relying on agencies from each country, as well as a synthesis of data from United Nations divisions, Eurostate Demographic statistics, the U.S. Census international database, and its own data collection, the World Bank's Open Data site offers free and open access to data about development in countries around the globe.

4 The Center for Systemic Peace (CSP) is engaged in innovative research on the problem of political violence within the structural context of the dynamic global system. The Center supports scientific research and quantitative analysis in many issue areas related to the fundamental problems of violence in both human relations and societal-systemic development processes. The Center continually monitors political behavior in each of the world's major states and reports on emerging issues and persisting conditions related to the problems of political violence and "state failure." A dataset with these and other international measures can be downloaded from here. Used with permission. *Note: Polity Scores range from -10 to 10 and include the following categories: -10 to -9: strongly autocratic, -8 to -7 autocratic, -6 to -4 weakly autocratic, -3 to +3 anocratic, +4 to +6 weakly democratic, +7 to +8 democratic, +9 to +10 strongly democratic.

5 Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) is a new approach to conceptualizing and measuring democracy. V-Dem provides a multidimensional and disaggregated dataset that reflects the complexity of the concept of democracy as a system of rule that goes beyond simple presence of elections. The V-Dem project distinguishes between seven high-level principles of democracy: electoral, liberal, participatory, deliberative, egalitarian, majoritarian, and consensual, and collects data to measure these principles. A dataset with these and other international measures can be downloaded from here. Used with permission.

6 The Religious Characteristics of States Dataset Project: Government Religious Preference (GRP) measures government-level favoritism toward, and disfavor against, 30 religious denominations. A series of ordered categorical variables index the state's institutional favoritism in 28 different ways. The variables are combined to form five composite indices for five broad components of state-religion: official status, religious education, financial support, regulatory burdens, and freedom of practice. The five components' composites in turn are further combined into a single composite score, the GRP score. The RCS Data Project would like to acknowledge, recognize, and express our deepest gratitude for the significant contributions of Todd M. Johnson, the principal investigator of the World Christian Database, the co-principal investigator of the World Religion Database, and co-author of the World Christian Encyclopedia series.

7 The Religion and State (RAS) Project is a university-based project located at Bar Ilan University in Ramat Gan, Israel and is directed by Jonathan Fox. Round 3 of the RAS includes all countries with populations of 250,000 or more as well as a sampling of smaller states and offers annual measures from 1990 to 2014. The methods used for conducting the RAS3 collection and the complete codebook can be reviewed online. Or, the codebook and data file can be downloaded free of charge here. For details on how the RAS indexes reported on the ARDA’s National Profiles were coded, constructed, and placed into categories, click here.

8 Data under the "Features of Constitution" heading are drawn from coding of the U.S. State Department's 2008 International Religious Freedom Reports conducted by researchers at the Association of Religion Data Archives. The article by Brian Grim and Roger Finke describes the coding of the International Religious Freedom reports. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. Used with permission.

9 Text from country constitutions was copied from primary documents obtained online using a variety of sources, including the Constitute Project, World Constitutions Illustrated, and government sources. When the text was in a language other than English, it was translated to English by ARDA staff or with web-based translation utilities such as Google Translate. Emphases were added to the text by ARDA staff to differentiate religious content from non-religious content. Text is current to the date listed in the "Current as of" field shown above. Please contact us at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. if you are aware of any incorrect information provided on this page.

10 Freedom House is an independent non-governmental organization that offers measures of the extent to which governments are accountable to their own people; the rule of law prevails; and freedoms of expression, association, belief and respect for the rights of minorities and women are guaranteed. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. Used with permission.

11 The CIA's World Factbook was created as an annual summary and update to the now defunct National Intelligence Survey (NIS) studies. The first classified Factbook was published in August 1962, and the first unclassified version was published in June 1971. The NIS program was terminated in 1973 except for the Factbook, map, and gazetteer components. The 1975 Factbook was the first to be made available to the public with sales through the US Government Printing Office (GPO). The year 2010 marks the 67th year of the World Factbook and its predecessor programs. The maps and flags are also from the World Factbook, which is an open source.

12 Relying on agencies from each country, as well as a synthesis of data from United Nations divisions, Eurostate Demographic statistics, the U.S. Census international database, and its own data collection, the World Bank's Open Data site offers free and open access to data about development in countries around the globe.

13 The Heritage Foundation/Wall Street Journal Index of Economic Freedom is a systematic, empirical measurement of economic freedom in countries throughout the world. A set of objective economic criteria are used to study and grade various countries for the annual publication of the Index of Economic Freedom. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. Used with permission.

14 The United Nations Human Development Reports provide data and statistical analysis in various areas of human development. The Human Development Report (HDR) presents two types of statistics: the human development indicator tables, which provide a global assessment of country achievements in different areas of human development, and thematic statistical analysis. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. Used with permission.

15 The 2013 Gender Inequality Index is a composite measure reflecting inequality in achievements between women and men in three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and the labor market. It varies between zero (when women and men fare equally) and one (when men or women fare poorly compared to the other in all dimensions). The health dimension is measured by two indicators: maternal mortality ratio and the adolescent fertility rate. The empowerment dimension is also measured by two indicators: the share of parliamentary seats held by each sex and by secondary and higher education attainment levels. The labor dimension is measured by women’s participation in the work force. Source: The United Nations Human Development Reports provide data and statistical analysis in various areas of human development. The Human Development Report (HDR) presents two types of statistics: the human development indicator tables, which provide a global assessment of country achievements in different areas of human development, and thematic statistical analysis. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. Used with permission.

16 Military data is drawn from the National Material Capabilities (v4.0) dataset, which is a component of and hosted by the Correlates of War Project. The Correlates of War Project seeks to facilitate the collection, dissemination, and use of accurate and reliable quantitative data in international relations. Correlates of War data may be accessed through the above link. Used with permission.

17 The article by Brian Grim and Roger Finke describes the coding of the U.S. State Department's International Religious Freedom reports. The 2003, 2005, and 2008 reports were coded by researchers at the Association of Religion Data Archives. The GRI, GFI and SRI values reported on the National Profiles are averages from the 2003, 2005, and 2008 International Religious Freedom reports, while the Religious Persecution measure is an average from the 2005 and 2008 reports. All other measures derived from the International Religious Freedom reports were coded from the reports 2008. A data file with all of the 2008 coding, as well as data files with other cross national collections are available for preview and download from the data archive on this site. Used with permission.

18 The Cingranelli-Richards (CIRI) Human Rights Dataset contains standards-based quantitative information on government respect for 15 internationally recognized human rights for 202 countries, annually from 1981-2011. It is designed for use by scholars and students who seek to test theories about the causes and consequences of human rights violations, as well as policy makers and analysts who seek to estimate the human rights effects of a wide variety of institutional changes and public policies including democratization, economic aid, military aid, structural adjustment, and humanitarian intervention. The full CIRI Human Rights Dataset can be accessed through the above link. Used with permission.

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