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Variables: The extent to which religious education is mandatory in public schools. (EDU1X14X)1


Education: Religious Education Mandatory



NATION

REGION

EDU1X14X1 [X]

Afghanistan South-Central Asia Mandatory for some who have no ability to opt out; the course must be in religion but optional for others or there exists for some the option of taking a non-religious course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Akrotiri Western Asia
Albania Southern Europe None
Algeria Northern Africa Mandatory for all; the course must be in religion.
American Samoa Polynesia
Andorra Southern Europe Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Angola Middle Africa None
Anguilla Caribbean
Antarctica Antarctica
Antigua and Barbuda Caribbean
Argentina South America Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Armenia Western Asia Mandatory for all; the course must be in religion.
Aruba Caribbean
Australia Australia/New Zealand Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Austria Western Europe Mandatory, but upon specific request, a student may opt out of the course.
Azerbaijan Western Asia None
Bahamas, The Caribbean Mandatory, but upon specific request, a student may opt out of the course.
Bahrain Western Asia Mandatory for some who have no ability to opt out; the course must be in religion but optional for others or there exists for some the option of taking a non-religious course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Bangladesh South-Central Asia Mandatory for all; the course must be in religion.
Barbados Caribbean Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Belarus Eastern Europe None
Belgium Western Europe Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Belize Central America Mandatory, but upon specific request, a student may opt out of the course.
Benin Western Africa None
Bermuda Northern America
Bhutan South-Central Asia Mandatory, but upon specific request, a student may opt out of the course.
Bolivia South America Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Bosnia and Herzegovina Southern Europe Mandatory for some who have no ability to opt out; the course must be in religion but optional for others or there exists for some the option of taking a non-religious course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Botswana Southern Africa Mandatory, but upon specific request, a student may opt out of the course.
Bougainville Melanesia
Brazil South America Mandatory for some who have no ability to opt out; the course must be in religion but optional for others or there exists for some the option of taking a non-religious course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
British Indian Ocean Territory Eastern Africa
British Virgin Islands Caribbean
Brunei South-Eastern Asia Mandatory for all; the course must be in religion.
Bulgaria Eastern Europe Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Burkina Faso Western Africa None
Burma (Myanmar) South-Eastern Asia Mandatory, but upon specific request, a student may opt out of the course.
Burundi Eastern Africa None
Cambodia South-Eastern Asia Mandatory, but upon specific request, a student may opt out of the course.
Cameroon Middle Africa None
Canada Northern America Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Cape Verde Western Africa Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Caribbean Netherlands Caribbean
Cayman Islands Caribbean
Central African Republic Middle Africa None
Chad Middle Africa None
Channel Islands Northern Europe
Chile South America Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
China Eastern Asia None
China-Tibet Eastern Asia
Christmas Island Australia/New Zealand
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Australia/New Zealand
Colombia South America Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Comoros Eastern Africa Mandatory, but upon specific request, a student may opt out of the course.
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Middle Africa Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Congo, Republic of the Middle Africa None
Cook Islands Polynesia
Costa Rica Central America Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Cote d'Ivoire Western Africa Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Croatia Southern Europe Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Cuba Caribbean None
Curacao Caribbean
Cyprus Western Asia Mandatory for some who have no ability to opt out; the course must be in religion but optional for others or there exists for some the option of taking a non-religious course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Czech Republic Eastern Europe Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Denmark Northern Europe Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Dhekelia Western Asia
Djibouti Eastern Africa None
Dominica Caribbean
Dominican Republic Caribbean Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Ecuador South America None
Egypt Northern Africa Mandatory for all; the course must be in religion.
El Salvador Central America None
Equatorial Guinea Middle Africa Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Eritrea Eastern Africa None
Estonia Northern Europe Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Ethiopia Eastern Africa None
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) South America
Faroe Islands Northern Europe
Fiji Melanesia None
Finland Northern Europe Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
France Western Europe None
French Guiana South America
French Polynesia Polynesia
Gabon Middle Africa Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Gambia, The Western Africa Mandatory for all; the course must be in religion.
Georgia Western Asia Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Germany Western Europe Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Ghana Western Africa Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Gibraltar Southern Europe
Greece Southern Europe Mandatory for some who have no ability to opt out; the course must be in religion but optional for others or there exists for some the option of taking a non-religious course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Greenland Northern America
Grenada Caribbean
Guadeloupe Caribbean
Guam Micronesia (region)
Guatemala Central America Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Guernsey Northern Europe
Guinea Western Africa None
Guinea-Bissau Western Africa None
Guyana South America Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Haiti Caribbean None
Honduras Central America None
Hong Kong Eastern Asia
Hungary Eastern Europe Mandatory, but upon specific request, a student may opt out of the course.
Iceland Northern Europe Mandatory, but upon specific request, a student may opt out of the course.
India South-Central Asia None
Indonesia South-Eastern Asia Mandatory for all; the course must be in religion.
Iran South-Central Asia Mandatory for all; the course must be in religion.
Iraq Western Asia Mandatory for some who have no ability to opt out; the course must be in religion but optional for others or there exists for some the option of taking a non-religious course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Ireland Northern Europe Mandatory, but upon specific request, a student may opt out of the course.
Isle of Man Northern Europe
Israel Western Asia Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Italy Southern Europe Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Jamaica Caribbean Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Japan Eastern Asia None
Jersey Northern Europe
Jordan Western Asia Mandatory for some who have no ability to opt out; the course must be in religion but optional for others or there exists for some the option of taking a non-religious course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Kazakhstan South-Central Asia Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Kenya Eastern Africa Mandatory for some who have no ability to opt out; the course must be in religion but optional for others or there exists for some the option of taking a non-religious course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Kiribati Micronesia (region)
Korea, (North) Democratic Republic of Eastern Asia
Korea, (South) Republic of Eastern Asia
Kosovo Southern Europe None
Kuwait Western Asia Mandatory for all; the course must be in religion.
Kyrgyzstan South-Central Asia None
Laos South-Eastern Asia Mandatory for all; the course must be in religion.
Latvia Northern Europe Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Lebanon Western Asia Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Lesotho Southern Africa Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Liberia Western Africa Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Libya Northern Africa Mandatory for all; the course must be in religion.
Liechtenstein Western Europe Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Lithuania Northern Europe Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Luxembourg Western Europe Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Macau Eastern Asia
Macedonia Southern Europe None
Madagascar Eastern Africa Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Malawi Eastern Africa Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Malaysia South-Eastern Asia Mandatory for some who have no ability to opt out; the course must be in religion but optional for others or there exists for some the option of taking a non-religious course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Maldives South-Central Asia Mandatory for some who have no ability to opt out; the course must be in religion but optional for others or there exists for some the option of taking a non-religious course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Mali Western Africa None
Malta Southern Europe Mandatory, but upon specific request, a student may opt out of the course.
Marshall Islands Micronesia (region)
Martinique Caribbean
Mauritania Western Africa Mandatory for all; the course must be in religion.
Mauritius Eastern Africa Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Mayotte Eastern Africa
Mexico Central America None
Micronesia, Federated States of Micronesia (region)
Moldova Eastern Europe Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Monaco Western Europe
Mongolia Eastern Asia None
Montenegro Southern Europe None
Montserrat Caribbean
Morocco Northern Africa Mandatory for some who have no ability to opt out; the course must be in religion but optional for others or there exists for some the option of taking a non-religious course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Mozambique Eastern Africa None
Namibia Southern Africa Mandatory for all; the course must be in religion.
Nauru Micronesia (region)
Nepal South-Central Asia None
Netherlands Western Europe Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
New Caledonia Melanesia
New Zealand Australia/New Zealand Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Nicaragua Central America Mandatory for all; the course must be in religion.
Niger Western Africa None
Nigeria Western Africa Mandatory for some who have no ability to opt out; the course must be in religion but optional for others or there exists for some the option of taking a non-religious course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Niue Polynesia
Norfolk Island Australia/New Zealand
Northern Cyprus Western Asia None
Northern Mariana Islands Micronesia (region)
Norway Northern Europe Mandatory, but upon specific request, a student may opt out of the course.
Occupied Palestinian Territories Western Asia
Oman Western Asia Mandatory for some who have no ability to opt out; the course must be in religion but optional for others or there exists for some the option of taking a non-religious course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Pakistan South-Central Asia Mandatory for some who have no ability to opt out; the course must be in religion but optional for others or there exists for some the option of taking a non-religious course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Palau Micronesia (region)
Panama Central America Mandatory, but upon specific request, a student may opt out of the course.
Papua New Guinea Melanesia Mandatory, but upon specific request, a student may opt out of the course.
Paraguay South America None
Peru South America Mandatory, but upon specific request, a student may opt out of the course.
Philippines South-Eastern Asia Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Pitcairn Islands Polynesia
Poland Eastern Europe Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Portugal Southern Europe Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Puerto Rico Caribbean
Qatar Western Asia Mandatory for all; the course must be in religion.
Reunion Eastern Africa
Romania Eastern Europe Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Russia Eastern Europe Mandatory, but upon specific request, a student may opt out of the course.
Rwanda Eastern Africa Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Saint Barthelemy Caribbean
Saint Helena Western Africa
Saint Kitts and Nevis Caribbean
Saint Lucia Caribbean
Saint Martin Caribbean
Saint Pierre and Miquelon Northern America
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Caribbean
Samoa Polynesia
San Marino Southern Europe
Sao Tome and Principe Middle Africa
Saudi Arabia Western Asia Mandatory for all; the course must be in religion.
Senegal Western Africa Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Serbia Southern Europe Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Seychelles Eastern Africa
Sierra Leone Western Africa Mandatory for all; the course must be in religion.
Singapore South-Eastern Asia None
Sint Maarten Caribbean
Slovakia Eastern Europe Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Slovenia Southern Europe None
Solomon Islands Melanesia Mandatory, but upon specific request, a student may opt out of the course.
Somalia Eastern Africa Mandatory for some who have no ability to opt out; the course must be in religion but optional for others or there exists for some the option of taking a non-religious course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Somaliland Eastern Africa
South Africa Southern Africa Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
South Sudan Eastern Africa
Spain Southern Europe Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Spanish North Africa Northern Africa
Sri Lanka South-Central Asia Mandatory for all; the course must be in religion.
Sudan Northern Africa Mandatory for some who have no ability to opt out; the course must be in religion but optional for others or there exists for some the option of taking a non-religious course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Suriname South America None
Svalbard Northern Europe
Swaziland Southern Africa Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Sweden Northern Europe Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Switzerland Western Europe Mandatory, but upon specific request, a student may opt out of the course.
Syria Western Asia Mandatory for all; the course must be in religion.
Taiwan Eastern Asia None
Tajikistan South-Central Asia None
Tanzania Eastern Africa Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Thailand South-Eastern Asia Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Timor-Leste South-Eastern Asia Mandatory, but upon specific request, a student may opt out of the course.
Togo Western Africa None
Tokelau Polynesia
Tonga Polynesia
Trinidad and Tobago Caribbean Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Tunisia Northern Africa Mandatory for all; the course must be in religion.
Turkey Western Asia Mandatory for some who have no ability to opt out; the course must be in religion but optional for others or there exists for some the option of taking a non-religious course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Turkmenistan South-Central Asia None
Turks and Caicos Islands Caribbean
Tuvalu Polynesia
Uganda Eastern Africa Optional, or there is a choice between a religion and a non-religion course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Ukraine Eastern Europe None
United Arab Emirates Western Asia Mandatory for some who have no ability to opt out; the course must be in religion but optional for others or there exists for some the option of taking a non-religious course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
United Kingdom Northern Europe Mandatory, but upon specific request, a student may opt out of the course.
United States (General) Northern America None
Uruguay South America None
Uzbekistan South-Central Asia None
Vanuatu Melanesia Mandatory, but upon specific request, a student may opt out of the course.
Vatican City Southern Europe
Venezuela South America None
Vietnam South-Eastern Asia None
Virgin Islands (U.S.) Caribbean
Wallis and Futuna Polynesia
Western Sahara Northern Africa Mandatory for some who have no ability to opt out; the course must be in religion but optional for others or there exists for some the option of taking a non-religious course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Yemen Western Asia Mandatory for all; the course must be in religion.
Zambia Eastern Africa Mandatory for some who have no ability to opt out; the course must be in religion but optional for others or there exists for some the option of taking a non-religious course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
Zimbabwe Eastern Africa Mandatory for some who have no ability to opt out; the course must be in religion but optional for others or there exists for some the option of taking a non-religious course on topics like ethics, philosophy, or religions of the world.
     


Sources

1 The Religion and State (RAS) Project is a university-based project located at Bar Ilan University in Ramat Gan, Israel and is directed by Jonathan Fox. Round 3 of the RAS includes all countries with populations of 250,000 or more as well as a sampling of smaller states and offers annual measures from 1990 to 2014. The methods used for conducting the RAS3 collection and the complete codebook can be reviewed online. Or, the codebook and data file can be downloaded free of charge here. For details on how the RAS indexes reported on the ARDA’s National Profiles were coded, constructed, and placed into categories, click here.

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