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Variables: Judicial Independence Composite Score, as average of scores for higher and lower courts (JUDIND)1

Judicial Independence Composite Score




Afghanistan South-Central Asia -0.1
Akrotiri Western Asia 2.2
Albania Southern Europe 0.3
Algeria Northern Africa -1.3
American Samoa Polynesia 2.4
Andorra Southern Europe
Angola Middle Africa 0.2
Anguilla Caribbean 2.2
Antarctica Antarctica
Antigua and Barbuda Caribbean
Argentina South America 1.3
Armenia Western Asia -0.7
Aruba Caribbean 2.2
Australia Australia/New Zealand 3.2
Austria Western Europe 2.2
Azerbaijan Western Asia -2.7
Bahamas, The Caribbean
Bahrain Western Asia
Bangladesh South-Central Asia -0.7
Barbados Caribbean 2.2
Belarus Eastern Europe -2.1
Belgium Western Europe 2.1
Belize Central America
Benin Western Africa 1.1
Bermuda Northern America 2.2
Bhutan South-Central Asia 1.5
Bolivia South America 0.2
Bosnia and Herzegovina Southern Europe 0.6
Botswana Southern Africa 1.0
Bougainville Melanesia 1.4
Brazil South America 1.0
British Indian Ocean Territory Eastern Africa 2.2
British Virgin Islands Caribbean 2.2
Brunei South-Eastern Asia
Bulgaria Eastern Europe 1.0
Burkina Faso Western Africa 0.4
Burma (Myanmar) South-Eastern Asia 1.0
Burundi Eastern Africa -1.1
Cambodia South-Eastern Asia -0.8
Cameroon Middle Africa -1.3
Canada Northern America 2.2
Cape Verde Western Africa 1.6
Caribbean Netherlands Caribbean 2.2
Cayman Islands Caribbean 2.2
Central African Republic Middle Africa 0.0
Chad Middle Africa -0.8
Channel Islands Northern Europe 2.2
Chile South America 2.0
China Eastern Asia -1.5
China-Tibet Eastern Asia -1.5
Christmas Island Australia/New Zealand 3.2
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Australia/New Zealand 3.2
Colombia South America 1.0
Comoros Eastern Africa 0.4
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Middle Africa -0.6
Congo, Republic of the Middle Africa -1.4
Cook Islands Polynesia 2.4
Costa Rica Central America 1.6
Cote d'Ivoire Western Africa -0.5
Croatia Southern Europe 0.5
Cuba Caribbean -1.2
Curacao Caribbean 2.2
Cyprus Western Asia 1.3
Czech Republic Eastern Europe 2.0
Denmark Northern Europe 3.1
Dhekelia Western Asia 2.2
Djibouti Eastern Africa -0.5
Dominica Caribbean
Dominican Republic Caribbean -1.3
Ecuador South America -2.1
Egypt Northern Africa 0.1
El Salvador Central America 1.4
Equatorial Guinea Middle Africa -2.0
Eritrea Eastern Africa -2.6
Estonia Northern Europe 2.5
Ethiopia Eastern Africa -0.6
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) South America 2.2
Faroe Islands Northern Europe 3.1
Fiji Melanesia 1.1
Finland Northern Europe 2.0
France Western Europe 1.6
French Guiana South America 1.6
French Polynesia Polynesia 1.6
Gabon Middle Africa 0.2
Gambia, The Western Africa -1.5
Georgia Western Asia -0.1
Germany Western Europe 2.3
Ghana Western Africa 1.4
Gibraltar Southern Europe 2.2
Greece Southern Europe 2.0
Greenland Northern America 3.1
Grenada Caribbean
Guadeloupe Caribbean 1.6
Guam Micronesia (region) 2.4
Guatemala Central America 1.2
Guernsey Northern Europe 2.2
Guinea Western Africa -1.0
Guinea-Bissau Western Africa 0.0
Guyana South America 1.5
Haiti Caribbean 0.5
Honduras Central America -0.4
Hong Kong Eastern Asia -1.5
Hungary Eastern Europe 0.9
Iceland Northern Europe 1.5
India South-Central Asia 1.1
Indonesia South-Eastern Asia 0.3
Iran South-Central Asia -0.8
Iraq Western Asia -0.1
Ireland Northern Europe 2.7
Isle of Man Northern Europe 2.2
Israel Western Asia -0.9
Italy Southern Europe 1.1
Jamaica Caribbean 1.6
Japan Eastern Asia 0.7
Jersey Northern Europe 2.2
Jordan Western Asia -0.8
Kazakhstan South-Central Asia -1.6
Kenya Eastern Africa 0.8
Kiribati Micronesia (region)
Korea, (North) Democratic Republic of Eastern Asia -3.1
Korea, (South) Republic of Eastern Asia 0.9
Kosovo Southern Europe 1.1
Kuwait Western Asia 0.1
Kyrgyzstan South-Central Asia -0.5
Laos South-Eastern Asia 2.7
Latvia Northern Europe 2.5
Lebanon Western Asia -0.3
Lesotho Southern Africa 1.5
Liberia Western Africa 0.0
Libya Northern Africa 0.2
Liechtenstein Western Europe
Lithuania Northern Europe 2.2
Luxembourg Western Europe
Macau Eastern Asia -1.5
Macedonia Southern Europe -2.0
Madagascar Eastern Africa -1.1
Malawi Eastern Africa 0.6
Malaysia South-Eastern Asia 0.1
Maldives South-Central Asia -0.7
Mali Western Africa -0.8
Malta Southern Europe
Marshall Islands Micronesia (region)
Martinique Caribbean 1.6
Mauritania Western Africa -0.6
Mauritius Eastern Africa 0.3
Mayotte Eastern Africa 1.6
Mexico Central America 0.6
Micronesia, Federated States of Micronesia (region)
Moldova Eastern Europe 0.6
Monaco Western Europe
Mongolia Eastern Asia 0.7
Montenegro Southern Europe 0.4
Montserrat Caribbean 2.2
Morocco Northern Africa 0.5
Mozambique Eastern Africa 0.2
Namibia Southern Africa 1.4
Nauru Micronesia (region)
Nepal South-Central Asia 1.2
Netherlands Western Europe 2.2
New Caledonia Melanesia 1.6
New Zealand Australia/New Zealand 2.4
Nicaragua Central America -2.1
Niger Western Africa 0.4
Nigeria Western Africa 1.0
Niue Polynesia 2.4
Norfolk Island Australia/New Zealand 3.2
Northern Cyprus Western Asia
Northern Mariana Islands Micronesia (region) 2.4
Norway Northern Europe 2.7
Occupied Palestinian Territories Western Asia 0.7
Oman Western Asia 0.1
Pakistan South-Central Asia 0.2
Palau Micronesia (region)
Panama Central America -0.3
Papua New Guinea Melanesia 1.4
Paraguay South America 1.0
Peru South America 1.1
Philippines South-Eastern Asia 0.8
Pitcairn Islands Polynesia 2.2
Poland Eastern Europe 2.2
Portugal Southern Europe 2.5
Puerto Rico Caribbean 2.4
Qatar Western Asia -0.3
Reunion Eastern Africa 1.6
Romania Eastern Europe 2.3
Russia Eastern Europe -2.2
Rwanda Eastern Africa -0.3
Saint Barthelemy Caribbean 1.6
Saint Helena Western Africa 2.2
Saint Kitts and Nevis Caribbean
Saint Lucia Caribbean
Saint Martin Caribbean 1.6
Saint Pierre and Miquelon Northern America 1.6
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Caribbean
Samoa Polynesia
San Marino Southern Europe
Sao Tome and Principe Middle Africa 1.1
Saudi Arabia Western Asia -0.8
Senegal Western Africa 0.4
Serbia Southern Europe 0.5
Seychelles Eastern Africa 1.4
Sierra Leone Western Africa -0.2
Singapore South-Eastern Asia -0.6
Sint Maarten Caribbean 2.2
Slovakia Eastern Europe 1.5
Slovenia Southern Europe 1.8
Solomon Islands Melanesia 1.6
Somalia Eastern Africa -0.8
Somaliland Eastern Africa -0.6
South Africa Southern Africa 2.0
South Sudan Eastern Africa -0.6
Spain Southern Europe 2.0
Spanish North Africa Northern Africa 2.0
Sri Lanka South-Central Asia 2.4
Sudan Northern Africa -1.5
Suriname South America 0.4
Svalbard Northern Europe 2.7
Swaziland Southern Africa -0.6
Sweden Northern Europe 3.0
Switzerland Western Europe 2.4
Syria Western Asia -1.8
Taiwan Eastern Asia 0.7
Tajikistan South-Central Asia -1.7
Tanzania Eastern Africa 1.0
Thailand South-Eastern Asia 0.5
Timor-Leste South-Eastern Asia 1.0
Togo Western Africa -0.4
Tokelau Polynesia 2.4
Tonga Polynesia
Trinidad and Tobago Caribbean 1.8
Tunisia Northern Africa 1.9
Turkey Western Asia 0.5
Turkmenistan South-Central Asia -2.3
Turks and Caicos Islands Caribbean 2.2
Tuvalu Polynesia
Uganda Eastern Africa 1.1
Ukraine Eastern Europe -0.9
United Arab Emirates Western Asia
United Kingdom Northern Europe 2.2
United States (General) Northern America 2.4
Uruguay South America 1.7
Uzbekistan South-Central Asia -2.4
Vanuatu Melanesia 1.0
Vatican City Southern Europe
Venezuela South America -2.0
Vietnam South-Eastern Asia -0.5
Virgin Islands (U.S.) Caribbean 2.4
Wallis and Futuna Polynesia 1.6
Western Sahara Northern Africa 0.5
Yemen Western Asia -0.9
Zambia Eastern Africa 0.8
Zimbabwe Eastern Africa 0.6


1 Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) is a new approach to conceptualizing and measuring democracy. V-Dem provides a multidimensional and disaggregated dataset that reflects the complexity of the concept of democracy as a system of rule that goes beyond simple presence of elections. The V-Dem project distinguishes between seven high-level principles of democracy: electoral, liberal, participatory, deliberative, egalitarian, majoritarian, and consensual, and collects data to measure these principles. A dataset with these and other international measures can be downloaded from here. Used with permission.

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