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Variables: Official and National Language(s) (LANG)1




Afghanistan South-Central Asia Dari Persian, Pashto (both official)
Akrotiri Western Asia English, Greek
Albania Southern Europe Albanian (official)
Algeria Northern Africa Arabic, Tamazight (both official); French
American Samoa Polynesia English, Samoan
Andorra Southern Europe Catalan (official)
Angola Middle Africa Portuguese (official); many Bantu languages
Anguilla Caribbean English (official)
Antarctica Antarctica [no indigenous inhabitants]
Antigua and Barbuda Caribbean English (official); Antiguan Creole
Argentina South America Spanish (official)
Armenia Western Asia Armenian (official)
Aruba Caribbean Papiamento, Dutch (both official)
Australia Australia/New Zealand English
Austria Western Europe German (official)
Azerbaijan Western Asia Azerbaijani
Bahamas, The Caribbean English (official)
Bahrain Western Asia Arabic (official)
Bangladesh South-Central Asia Bangla (aka Bengali) (official)
Barbados Caribbean English (official); Bajan
Belarus Eastern Europe Russian, Belarusian (both official)
Belgium Western Europe Flemish, French, German (all official)
Belize Central America English (official)
Benin Western Africa French (official); Fon, Yoruba
Bermuda Northern America English (official)
Bhutan South-Central Asia Dzongkha Tibetan (official)
Bolivia South America Spanish, Quechua, Aymara, Guarani (all official); 33 others with official designation
Bosnia and Herzegovina Southern Europe Bosnia, Serbian, Croatian (all official)
Botswana Southern Africa English (official); Setswana
Bougainville Melanesia Tok Pisin, English, Hari Motu (all official)
Brazil South America Portuguese (official)
British Indian Ocean Territory Eastern Africa [no indigenous inhabitants]
British Virgin Islands Caribbean English (official)
Brunei South-Eastern Asia Malay (official)
Bulgaria Eastern Europe Bulgarian (official)
Burkina Faso Western Africa French (official); many Sudanic languages
Burma (Myanmar) South-Eastern Asia Burmese (official)
Burundi Eastern Africa Kirundi, French (both official)
Cambodia South-Eastern Asia Khmer (official)
Cameroon Middle Africa English, French (both official); many African languages
Canada Northern America English, French (both official)
Cape Verde Western Africa Portuguese (official); Crioulo
Caribbean Netherlands Caribbean Dutch (official nationwide); Papiamento (official in selected regions)
Cayman Islands Caribbean English (official)
Central African Republic Middle Africa French (official); Sangho (national)
Chad Middle Africa French, Arabic (both official); Sara
Channel Islands Northern Europe English (official in Jersey); French
Chile South America Spanish (official)
China Eastern Asia Mandarin Chinese (official nationwide); Zhuang, Yue, Mongolian, Uighur, Kyrgyz, Tibetan (each official in selected regions)
China-Tibet Eastern Asia Tibetan, Mandarin Chinese (both official)
Christmas Island Australia/New Zealand English (official) [but no indigenous population]
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Australia/New Zealand Malay, English
Colombia South America Spanish (official)
Comoros Eastern Africa Arabic, French, Comorian (all official)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Middle Africa French (official); Lingala, other Bantu languages
Congo, Republic of the Middle Africa French (official); Lingala, Monokutubu, Kikongo, other Bantu languages
Cook Islands Polynesia English, Rarotongan (both official)
Costa Rica Central America Spanish (official)
Cote d'Ivoire Western Africa French (official); Dioula and other African languages
Croatia Southern Europe Croatian (official)
Cuba Caribbean Spanish (official)
Curacao Caribbean Papiamento, Dutch, English (all official)
Cyprus Western Asia Greek, Turkish (both official)
Czech Republic Eastern Europe Czech (official)
Denmark Northern Europe Danish
Dhekelia Western Asia English, Greek
Djibouti Eastern Africa French, Arabic (both official); Somali
Dominica Caribbean English (official); French
Dominican Republic Caribbean Spanish (official)
Ecuador South America Spanish (official); Quechua, Shuar and other indigenous languages (varying subofficial statuses)
Egypt Northern Africa Arabic (official)
El Salvador Central America Spanish (official)
Equatorial Guinea Middle Africa Spanish, French (both official); Fang, Bubi
Eritrea Eastern Africa Tigrinya, Arabic, English (all official); other Ethiopic languages
Estonia Northern Europe Estonian (official); Russian
Ethiopia Eastern Africa Amharic (official nationwide); Oromo, Somali, Tigrinya, Afar (each official in selected regions); other Ethiopic languages
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) South America English, Spanish
Faroe Islands Northern Europe Faroese
Fiji Melanesia English, Fijian (official); Hindustani
Finland Northern Europe Finnish, Swedish (both official)
France Western Europe French (official)
French Guiana South America French (official)
French Polynesia Polynesia French, Polynesian (both official)
Gabon Middle Africa French (official); Fang, other Bantu languages
Gambia, The Western Africa English (official); Mandinka, Wolof, Fula
Georgia Western Asia Georgian (official)
Germany Western Europe German (official)
Ghana Western Africa English (official); Asante, Ewe, Fante, many other African languages
Gibraltar Southern Europe English (official)
Greece Southern Europe Greek (official)
Greenland Northern America Greenlandic, Danish (both official)
Grenada Caribbean English (official); French
Guadeloupe Caribbean French (official)
Guam Micronesia (region) English, Filipino, Chamorro, other Pacific Island languages
Guatemala Central America Spanish (official); several indigenous languages
Guernsey Northern Europe English, French
Guinea Western Africa French (official); Fulani, Malinke, Susa, other African languages
Guinea-Bissau Western Africa Portuguese (official); Crioulo, Pular, Mandingo
Guyana South America English (official); Guyanese Creole
Haiti Caribbean French, (Haitian) Creole (both official)
Honduras Central America Spanish (official); several indigenous languages
Hong Kong Eastern Asia Cantonese, English, Mandarin Chinese (all official)
Hungary Eastern Europe Hungarian (official)
Iceland Northern Europe Icelandic
India South-Central Asia Hindu and 14 other Indian languages (all official); English (subsidiary official)
Indonesia South-Eastern Asia Indonesia (Bahasa Indonesia) (official); Javanese and other indigenous languages
Iran South-Central Asia Farsi (Persian) (official)
Iraq Western Asia Arabic, Kurdish (both official nationwide); Turkmen, Syriac, Armenian (each official in selected regions)
Ireland Northern Europe English, Irish Gaelic (both officie)
Isle of Man Northern Europe English, Manx Gaelic
Israel Western Asia Hebrew, Arabic (both official)
Italy Southern Europe Italian (official)
Jamaica Caribbean English
Japan Eastern Asia Japanese
Jersey Northern Europe English (official)
Jordan Western Asia Arabic (official)
Kazakhstan South-Central Asia Kazakh, Russian (both official)
Kenya Eastern Africa English, Kiswahili (both official); other African languages
Kiribati Micronesia (region) I-Kiribati (Gilbertese), English (both official)
Korea, (North) Democratic Republic of Eastern Asia Korean
Korea, (South) Republic of Eastern Asia Korean
Kosovo Southern Europe Albanian, Serbian (both official)
Kuwait Western Asia Arabic (official)
Kyrgyzstan South-Central Asia Kyrgyz, Russian (both official)
Laos South-Eastern Asia Lao (official)
Latvia Northern Europe Latvian (official); Russian
Lebanon Western Asia Arabic (official)
Lesotho Southern Africa Sesotho, English (both official)
Liberia Western Africa English (official); Kpelle and several other African languages
Libya Northern Africa Arabic (official)
Liechtenstein Western Europe German (official)
Lithuania Northern Europe Lithuanian (official); Russian
Luxembourg Western Europe French, German (both official); Letzburgesch (national)
Macau Eastern Asia Chinese (NFI), Portuguese (both official)
Macedonia Southern Europe Macedonia (official); Albanian
Madagascar Eastern Africa French, Malagasy (both official)
Malawi Eastern Africa English (official), Chichewa, other Bantu languages
Malaysia South-Eastern Asia Malay (official)
Maldives South-Central Asia Dhivehi Sinhala (official)
Mali Western Africa French (official); Bambara and many other African languages
Malta Southern Europe Maltese, English (official)
Marshall Islands Micronesia (region) Marshallese, English (both official)
Martinique Caribbean French (official)
Mauritania Western Africa Arabic (official); Pular, Soninke, Wolof (all national)
Mauritius Eastern Africa English (official); [Mauritian] Creole
Mayotte Eastern Africa French (official)
Mexico Central America Spanish, Mayan, Nahuatl, other indigenous languages
Micronesia, Federated States of Micronesia (region) English (official)
Moldova Eastern Europe Moldovan/Romanian (official); Russian
Monaco Western Europe French (official)
Mongolia Eastern Asia Mongolian (official)
Montenegro Southern Europe Montenegrin (official); Serbian
Montserrat Caribbean English
Morocco Northern Africa Arabic, Tamazight (both official); French
Mozambique Eastern Africa Portuguese (official); many Bantu languages
Namibia Southern Africa English (official); Afrikaans (common), Oshivambo and other African languages
Nauru Micronesia (region) Nauruan (official); English
Nepal South-Central Asia Nepali (official); many other South Asian languages
Netherlands Western Europe Dutch (official nationwide); Frisian (official in selected regions)
New Caledonia Melanesia French (official)
New Zealand Australia/New Zealand English, Maori (both official)
Nicaragua Central America Spanish (official)
Niger Western Africa French (official); Hausa
Nigeria Western Africa English (official); Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo, Fulani, many other African languages
Niue Polynesia Niuean, English (both official)
Norfolk Island Australia/New Zealand English (official)
Northern Cyprus Western Asia Turkish
Northern Mariana Islands Micronesia (region) Chamorro, English (both official); Filipino languages
Norway Northern Europe Norwegian (official)
Occupied Palestinian Territories Western Asia Arabic, Hebrew
Oman Western Asia Arabic (official)
Pakistan South-Central Asia Urdu, English (both official); Punjabi and many other Indian languages
Palau Micronesia (region) Palauan, English (both official)
Panama Central America Spanish (official)
Papua New Guinea Melanesia Tok Pisin, English, Hari Motu (all official); many other Papuan languages
Paraguay South America Spanish, Guarani (both official)
Peru South America Spanish, Quechua, Aymara (all official)
Philippines South-Eastern Asia Filipino, English (both official)
Pitcairn Islands Polynesia English (official)
Poland Eastern Europe Polish (official)
Portugal Southern Europe Portuguese, Mirandese (both official)
Puerto Rico Caribbean Spanish, English
Qatar Western Asia Arabic (official)
Reunion Eastern Africa French (official)
Romania Eastern Europe Romanian (official); Hungarian
Russia Eastern Europe Russian (official)
Rwanda Eastern Africa Kinyarwanda, French, English (all official)
Saint Barthelemy Caribbean French, English
Saint Helena Western Africa English
Saint Kitts and Nevis Caribbean English (official)
Saint Lucia Caribbean English (official); French
Saint Martin Caribbean French (official)
Saint Pierre and Miquelon Northern America French (official)
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Caribbean English (official); French
Samoa Polynesia Samoan (official)
San Marino Southern Europe Italian
Sao Tome and Principe Middle Africa Portuguese (official); Forro
Saudi Arabia Western Asia Arabic (official)
Senegal Western Africa French (official); Wolof, Pular, other African languages
Serbia Southern Europe Serbian (official)
Seychelles Eastern Africa Seychellois Creole, English, French (all official)
Sierra Leone Western Africa English (official); Mende, Temne, Krio
Singapore South-Eastern Asia Mandarin Chinese, English, Malay, Tamil (all official)
Sint Maarten Caribbean English, Dutch (both official)
Slovakia Eastern Europe Slovak (official); Hungarian
Slovenia Southern Europe Slovenian (official nationwide); Italian, Hungarian (official in selected regions)
Solomon Islands Melanesia English (official); Melanesian Pidgin, many other Melanesian languages
Somalia Eastern Africa Somali, Arabic (both official)
Somaliland Eastern Africa Somali, Arabic (both official)
South Africa Southern Africa English, Afrikaans, 9 other African languages (all official)
South Sudan Eastern Africa English (official); Arabic, Dinka and other African languages
Spain Southern Europe Spanish (official nationwide); Catalan, Galician, Basque, Aranese (official in selected regions)
Spanish North Africa Northern Africa Spanish (official)
Sri Lanka South-Central Asia Sinhala, Tamil (both official)
Sudan Northern Africa Arabic, English (both official)
Suriname South America Dutch (official); Surinamese (Taki-Taki)
Svalbard Northern Europe Norwegian, Russian
Swaziland Southern Africa English, siSwati (both official)
Sweden Northern Europe Swedish (official)
Switzerland Western Europe German, French, Italian, Romansch (all official)
Syria Western Asia Arabic (official)
Taiwan Eastern Asia Mandarin Chinese (official)
Tajikistan South-Central Asia Tajik (official); Russian
Tanzania Eastern Africa Swahili, English (both official); Arabic, many Bantu languages
Thailand South-Eastern Asia Thai (official)
Timor-Leste South-Eastern Asia Tetun, Portuguese (both official); Indonesian, English (both working); many other indigenous languages
Togo Western Africa French (official); Ewe and other African languages
Tokelau Polynesia Tokelauan, English, Samoan
Tonga Polynesia Tongan, English (both official)
Trinidad and Tobago Caribbean English (official)
Tunisia Northern Africa Arabic (official); French
Turkey Western Asia Turkish (official)
Turkmenistan South-Central Asia Turkmen (official)
Turks and Caicos Islands Caribbean English (official)
Tuvalu Polynesia Tuvaluan, English (official)
Uganda Eastern Africa English (official); Luganda and other Bantu languages
Ukraine Eastern Europe Ukrainian (official); Russian
United Arab Emirates Western Asia Arabic (official)
United Kingdom Northern Europe English; Scottish, Scots Gaelic, Irish Gaelic, Welsh, Cornish (recognition in selected regions)
United States (General) Northern America English (official in 31 states), Hawaiian (official in Hawaii); Spanish
Uruguay South America Spanish (official)
Uzbekistan South-Central Asia Uzbek (official); Russian
Vanuatu Melanesia Bislama, English, French (all official)
Vatican City Southern Europe Italian, Latin
Venezuela South America Spanish (official)
Vietnam South-Eastern Asia Vietnamese (official)
Virgin Islands (U.S.) Caribbean English, Spanish, Spanish Creole, French, French Creole
Wallis and Futuna Polynesia French (official); Wallisian, Futunian
Western Sahara Northern Africa Arabic (national)
Yemen Western Asia Arabic (official)
Zambia Eastern Africa English (official); Bembe and many other Bantu languages
Zimbabwe Eastern Africa Shona, Ndebele, English, 13 other Bantu languages (all official)


1 The CIA's World Factbook was created as an annual summary and update to the now defunct National Intelligence Survey (NIS) studies. The first classified Factbook was published in August 1962, and the first unclassified version was published in June 1971. The NIS program was terminated in 1973 except for the Factbook, map, and gazetteer components. The 1975 Factbook was the first to be made available to the public with sales through the US Government Printing Office (GPO). The year 2010 marks the 67th year of the World Factbook and its predecessor programs. The maps and flags are also from the World Factbook, which is an open source.

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